Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article

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Selected articles list[edit]

Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/1 Beauty is a characteristic of a person, animal, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning, or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. As a cultural creation, beauty has been extremely commercialized. An "ideal beauty" is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture.

The experience of "beauty" often involves the interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. Because this is a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder."[1] In its most profound sense, beauty may engender a salient experience of positive reflection about the meaning of one's own existence. A subject of beauty is anything that resonates with personal meaning.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/2 Taste as an aesthetic, sociological, economic and anthropological concept refers to a cultural patterns of choice and preference. While taste is often understood as a biological concept, it can also be reasonably studied as a social or cultural phenomenon. Taste is about drawing distinctions between things such as styles, manners, consumer goods and works of art. Social inquiry of taste is about the human ability to judge what is beautiful, good and proper.

Social and cultural phenomena concerning taste are closely associated to social relations and dynamics between people. The concept of social taste is therefore rarely separated from its accompanying sociological concepts. An understanding of taste as something that is expressed in actions between people helps to perceive many social phenomena, like fashion, that would otherwise be inconceivable.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/3 Art is the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way that appeals to the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music and literature. The meaning of art is explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/4 An interpretation in philosophy of art, is an explanation of the meaning of some work of art. An interpretation expresses an understanding of a work of art, a poem, performance, or piece of literature.

There are many different theories of interpretation. On the one hand, there are an infinite number of interpretations for any given piece of art, any one of which may be considered valid. However, it may also be claimed that there really is only one valid interpretation for any given piece of art.

The aesthetic theory that people approach art with different aims is called pluralism. People's interpretations of art may be evaluated relative to these aims. The aim of some of these interpretations is such that they may be said to be true or false and the aim of others do not lend themselves to designating truth or falsity to art.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/5 In the visual arts, style can refer either to the aesthetic values, after choosing the composition, by choosing the physical techniques employed to present the imagery such as the art medium and stroke method of hand rendering, computer generated filter, or image capturing effect. An aesthetic movement - such as Realism, Romanticism, Impressionism - can promote an entire world view, a way of interpreting reality and deciding which parts of it are worth observing and/or emphasizing, as well as to what extent the artists' emotions are expressed. Some of these movements are closely associated with certain techniques, such as Pointillism, while others are more flexible, but each has a characteristic "look" that becomes more and more distinctive as it develops until it reaches a saturation point, paving the way for the next style.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/6

A detail from a painting by Hieronymus Bosch.

In analysing visual culture, the concept of The Gaze (also gaze and Le regard in French) describes how the viewer gazes upon (views) the people presented and represented. As a concept of social power relations, the 1960s ascendancy of postmodern philosophy and postmodern social theory, as exposited by the intellectuals Michel Foucault (the medical gaze) and Jacques Lacan (the mirror stage gaze), popularised usage of the gaze as a term.

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The Inspiration of a Poet, Nicholas Poussin, 1630

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seeks to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained.

Classicism is a force which is often present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions, however, some periods felt themselves more connected to the classical ideals than others, particularly the Age of Reason, the Age of Enlightenment and some movements in Modernism.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/8 Romanticism is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Industrial Revolution.[2] It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.

The movement stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror and awe—especially that which is experienced in confronting the sublimity of untamed nature and its picturesque qualities, both new aesthetic categories. It elevated folk art and custom to something noble, and argued for a "natural" epistemology of human activities as conditioned by nature in the form of language, custom and usage.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/9 Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/10

The Wounded Angel - Hugo Simberg.jpg

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the movement has its roots in Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil, 1857) by Charles Baudelaire. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire greatly admired and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stephane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and '70s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated through a series of manifestoes and attracted a generation of writers. The label "Symbolist" itself comes from the critic Jean Moréas, who coined it in order to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadent movement in literature and art.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/11 In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis ([looking up from] under the lintel, high, lofty, elevated, exalted) is the quality of greatness or vast magnitude, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual or artistic. The term especially refers to a greatness with which nothing else can be compared and which is beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement or imitation.

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Garden Gnomes and other lawn ornaments are often considered kitsch.

Kitsch (/kɪtʃ/) is the German and Yiddish word denoting art that is considered an inferior, tasteless copy of an extant style of art. The term kitsch was a response to the 19th century art whose aesthetics convey exaggerated sentimentality and melodrama, hence, kitsch art is closely associated with sentimental art. Moreover, kitsch (art) also denotes the types of art that are like-wise æsthetically deficient (whether or not it is sentimental, glamorous, theatrical, or creative) making it a creative gesture that merely imitates the superficial appearances of art (via repeated conventions and formulae), thus, it is uncreative and unoriginal; it is not Art. Contemporaneously, kitsch also (loosely) denotes art that is æsthetically pretentious to the degree of being in poor taste, and industrially-produced art-items that are considered trite and crass.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/13

RuPaul regularly capitalizes on his camp appeal through TV and movie cameo appearances.

Camp is an aesthetic sensibility wherein something is appealing because of its bad taste and ironic value. When the usage appeared, in 1909, it denoted: ostentatious, exaggerated, affected, theatrical, effeminate, and homosexual behaviour, and, by the middle of the 1970s, the definition comprised: banality, artifice, mediocrity, and ostentation so extreme as to have perversely sophisticated appeal. [3] American writer Susan Sontag's essay “Notes on ‘Camp’ ” (1964) emphasised its key elements as: artifice, frivolity, naïve middle-class pretentiousness, and ‘shocking’ excess.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/14

The Mona Lisa, by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the world.

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[4] to a surface (support base). In art, the term describes both the act and the result, which is called a painting. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay or concrete. Paintings may be decorated with gold leaf, and some modern paintings incorporate other materials including sand, clay, and scraps of paper.

Painting is a mode of expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/15

An example of "beauty in method"—a simple and elegant proof of the Pythagorean theorem.

Many mathematicians derive aesthetic pleasure from their work, and from mathematics in general. They express this pleasure by describing mathematics (or, at least, some aspect of mathematics) as beautiful. Sometimes mathematicians describe mathematics as an art form or, at a minimum, as a creative activity. Comparisons are often made with music and poetry.

Bertrand Russell expressed his sense of mathematical beauty in these words:

Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty — a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show. The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being more than Man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence, is to be found in mathematics as surely as poetry.[5]

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/16

The Love of Zero, a 1927 film by Robert Florey.
Avant-garde (French pronunciation: ​[avɑ̃ɡaʁd] in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard".[6] The adjective form is used in English, to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.

Avant-garde represents a pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The notion of the existence of the avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. However, this is not true in the case of music as many pieces are still being released which are generally considered avant-garde in popular culture.[7] Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada to the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E writers in the 1980s.[8]

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/17

The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists
Expressionism was a cultural movement originating in Germany at the start of the 20th-century as a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism.[9] It sought to express the meaning of "being alive"[10] and emotional experience rather than physical reality.[10][11] It is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.
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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/18

Gustave Courbet - Bonjour Monsieur Courbet - Musée Fabre.jpg
Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term also describes works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid.

Realism often refers to the artistic movement, which began in France in the 1850s. The popularity of realism grew with the introduction of photography - a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look “objectively real”. Realists positioned themselves against romanticism, a genre dominating French literature and artwork in the late 18th and early 19th century. Undistorted by personal bias, Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy became the goals of many Realists.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/19

Jacques Lipchitz, Birth of the Muses (1944-1950), MIT Campus.JPG
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard and/or plastic material, sound, and/or text and or light, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by finding or carving; others are assembled, built together and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Sculptures are often painted [12].

A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor.

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Portal:Aesthetics/Selected article/20 Postmodern art is a term used to describe an art movement which was thought to be in contradiction to some aspect of modernism, or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general movements such as Intermedia, Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern. The traits associated with the use of the term postmodern in art include bricolage, use of words prominently as the central artistic element, collage, simplification, appropriation, depiction of consumer or popular culture and Performance art.

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Nominations[edit]

Feel free to add featured, top or high importance Aesthetics articles to the above list. Other Aesthetics-related articles may be nominated here.

References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
  1. ^ Gary Martin (2007). "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder". The Phrase Finder. Retrieved December 4, 2007. 
  2. ^ Romanticism. Retrieved 30 January 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  3. ^ Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, 1976 edition, sense 6, [Slang, orig., homosexual jargon, Americanism] banality, mediocrity, artifice, ostentation, etc. so extreme as to amuse or have a perversely sophisticated appeal
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Online
  5. ^ Russell, Bertrand (1919). "The Study of Mathematics". Mysticism and Logic: And Other Essays. Longman. p. 60. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  6. ^ "Avant-garde definitions". Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  7. ^ "avant-garde tag – Music at Last.fm". Last.fm Ltd. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  8. ^ UBU website – UBU Web List of artists from Dada to the present day aligning themselves with the avant-garde
  9. ^ Garzanti, Aldo (1974) [1972]. Enciclopedia Garzanti della letteratura (in Italian). Milan: Guido Villa. p. 963.  page 241
  10. ^ a b Victorino Tejera, 1966, pages 85,140, Art and Human Intelligence, Vision Press Limited, London
  11. ^ The Oxford Illustratd Dictionary, 1976 edition, page 294
  12. ^ Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity September 22, 2007 Through January 20, 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum