Ahmadiyya (Urdu: احمدِیہ) is an Islamic religious movement founded in India near the end of the 19th century, originating with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908), who claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies about the world reformer of the end times, who was to herald the Eschaton as predicted in the traditions of various world religions and bring about the final triumph of Islam as per Islamic prophecy. He claimed that he was the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah and Mahdi awaited by Muslims. The adherents of the Ahmadiyya sect are referred to as Ahmadis or Ahmadi Muslims. Ahmadi emphasis lay in the belief that Islam is the final law for humanity as revealed to Muhammad and his prophecy of restoring to it its true essence and pristine form, which had been lost through the centuries. Thus, Ahmadis view themselves as leading the revival and peaceful propagation of Islam.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the movement on 23 March 1889 and termed it the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at (community), envisioning it to be a revitalisation of Islam. Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims and claim to practice Islam in its pristine form; however, Ahmadiyya views on certain beliefs in Islam have been controversial to mainstream Muslims since the movement’s birth. Many mainstream Muslims do not consider Ahmadis to be Muslims, citing in particular the Ahmadiyya viewpoint on the death and return of Jesus (see Jesus in Islam), the Ahmadiyya concept of Jihad as peaceful and the community’s view of the finality of prophethood with particular reference to the interpretation of Quran33:40. In several Islamic countries today Ahmadis have been marginalised by the majority religious community; severe persecution and often systematic oppression have led many Ahmadis to emigrate and settle elsewhere.
The Ahmadiyya Movement are the only denomination of Islam that universally accept in principle the process of evolution, albeit divinely guided, and actively promote it. Over the course of several decades the movement have issued various publications in support of the scientific concepts behind the process of evolution, and frequently engage in promoting how religious scripture supports the concept.
Ahmadi Muslims do not take all the Quranic and Biblicalcreation narratives literally, but understand some of the passages metaphorically. Intelligent Design models are also rejected as are certain aspects of Islamic creationism that some modernist religious bodies have postulated. Instead they propound the concept of "Guided Evolution", which is demonstrated as being supported both by scriptural and scientific evidence.
Ahmadi Muslims favor the perspective that the human race evolved out of the earth over a long period of time. The Qur'an teaches that man was created from the earth through a gradual evolutionary process in the following verses:
“And He (Allah/God) has created you in different stages and different forms ... And Allah has caused you to develop as a good growth from the earth. [Qur'an 71:14,17]
These verses illustrate that the creation of the human race was the culmination of a gradual evolutionary process and that it would be incorrect to say (as Creationism/Intelligent design suggests) that God formed the human being in an instant. Thus Ahmadis accept the concept of evolution in principle, but do not accept Darwinian evolution in all its details.
He traveled extensively across the subcontinent of India preaching his religious ideas and ideals and won a sizable following within his lifetime. He is known to have engaged in numerous debates and dialogues with the Muslim, Christian and Hindu priesthood and leadership. Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya movement on March 23, 1889. The mission of the movement, according to him, was the propagation of Islam in its pristine form.
Ghulam Ahmad authored around 80 books on various religious, spiritual and theological issues. He advocated a peaceful propagation of Islam and emphatically argued against the necessity of Jihad in its military (physical fighting) form in the present age.
The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam is an essay on Islam by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. The original was written in Urdu with the title Islami Usool ki Falāsifi, in order to be read at the Conference of Great Religions held at Lahore on December 26–29, 1896. It explicitly deals with the following five broad themes with detail set by the moderators of the Conference:
the physical, moral, and spiritual states of man;
what is the state of man after death?
the object of man's life and the means of its attainment;
the operation of the practical ordinances of the Law in this life and the next;