was an Amorite
state in lower Mesopotamia
, with Babylon
as its capital. Babylonia emerged when Hammurabi
c. 1728 – 1686 BC (short chronology
)) created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer
. The Amorites being a Semitic
people, Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language
for official use, and retained the Sumerian language
for religious use, which by that time was no longer a spoken language. The Akkadian and Sumerian cultures played a major role in Babylonian culture, and Babylon itself became the major cultural center in the ancient Near East
and remained so for more than a millennium, even under foreign rule.
, "my trust is in the son of Eshara
", reigned 745 – 727 BC) is considered the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
. He is considered to be one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Assyrians
before his death. A former governor of Kalhu
, he seized the throne on 13 Iyyar
, 745 BC, in the midst of a civil war during which the royal family was killed.
Upon ascending the throne, Tiglath-Pileser instituted reforms to several sectors of the Assyrian state, which arguably revived Assyria's hegemony over the Near East. He curtailed the powers of the high officials, often by appointed eunuchs as governors to remove provincial dynastic threats, and reducing the size of provinces. He expanded the army by incorporating large numbers of conquered people in it, with native Assyrians comprising the cavalry and chariotry. This also allowed it to campaign year-round rather than seasonally, and he used it to conquer the entire middle east. Unlike previous Assyrian rulers, his heirs were able to maintain his empire.