Architecture from the Greek ἀρχι- (archi), meaning first, prime, or chief, and τέκτων (tekton) meaning builder. It is a multi-disciplinary field, including within its fold mathematics and geometry, science, art, technology, social sciences, politics, history, philosophy, and so on. The first architect known by name was Imhotep from ancient Egypt. According to the Roman architectural writer Vitruvius "Architecture is an art, arising out of many other arts, and adorned with much and varied learning: by the help of which a judgement is formed of those works which are the result of other arts". He added that an architect should be well versed in fields such as music, astronomy and philosophy. That holds true to this day. "Architectural philosophy" is frequently used to describe the approach of an architect; for example, modernism, rationalism, empiricism, minimalism, postmodernism are some of the philosophical directions influencing architecture.
Architecture is seldom a "pure art", like painting and sculpture, as the human interaction with a building is usually practical as well as aesthetic. Thus the architect must make sure that the design conforms with the purpose of the building, the legal requirements in the area, as well as the practical and cultural concerns of the people who will use it. For example, a private home might have one bathroom, used by both sexes, but cultural norms and local building codes may dictate that a public building have separate restrooms for men and women. So that his design will best serve the people who will use the building, the architect must take great care with such mundane matters as the efficient placement of heating and cooling ducts, plumbing for restrooms and kitchens, conduits for electrical and communication lines, etc. Her designs must also take into account the environment into which the building will be placed. Where good building sites are scarce or expensive, it is often more practical to build structures that take up comparatively little ground but have many stories; in areas that do not have these constraints, a building that consist of a single, large story or several separate buildings may be more suitable. Disasters, both natural and man-made, must be taken into account. Today many architects of large buildings run computer simulations to see how their designs will react to a many different stresses -- from hundred year storms to aircraft collisions. Thus architecture is, with very few exceptions, a marriage of the aesthetic and the practical.
The early skyscrapers were a range of tall, commercial buildings built between 1884 and 1939, predominantly in the American cities of New York and Chicago. Cities in the United States were traditionally made up of low-rise buildings, but significant economic growth after the Civil War and increasingly intensive use of urban land encouraged the development of taller buildings beginning in the 1870s. Technological improvements enabled the construction of fireproofed iron-framed structures with deep foundations, equipped with new inventions such as the elevator and electric lighting. These made it both technically and commercially viable to build a new class of taller buildings, the first of which, Chicago's 138-foot (42 m) tall Home Insurance Building, opened in 1884. Their numbers grew rapidly and by 1888 they were being labelled skyscrapers.
Chicago initially led the way in skyscraper design, with many constructed in the center of the financial district during the late 1880s and early 1890s. Sometimes termed the products of the Chicago school of architecture, these skyscrapers attempted to balance aesthetic concerns with practical commercial design, producing large, square palazzo-styled buildings hosting shops and restaurants on the ground level and containing rentable offices on the upper floors. In contrast, New York's skyscrapers were frequently narrower towers which, more eclectic in style, were often criticised for their lack of elegance. In 1892, Chicago banned the construction of new skyscrapers taller than 150 feet (46 m), leaving the development of taller buildings to New York.
Architects: Matthew Brettingham, William Bruce, William Burges, John Douglas, Charles Holden, El Lissitzky, Benjamin Mountfort, I. M. Pei, Albert Speer, Rudolf Wolters. Buildings: 7 World Trade Center, Angkor Wat, Baden-Powell House, Belton House, Borobudur, BP Pedestrian Bridge, Bramall Hall, Buckingham Palace, Buildings and architecture of Bristol, Buildings of Jesus College, Oxford, Buildings of Nuffield College, Oxford, Building of the World Trade Center, Catherine de' Medici's building projects, Chicago Board of Trade Building, Heian Palace, Holkham Hall, IG Farben Building, House with Chimaeras, Hoysala architecture, City of Manchester Stadium, Mosque, Michigan State Capitol, New Orleans Mint, Oregon State Capitol, Oriel College, Oxford, Palazzo Pitti, Palladian architecture, Pennsylvania State Capitol, Round Church, Preslav, Sanssouci, Santa Maria de Ovila, Scottish Parliament building, Sicilian Baroque, St. Michael's Cathedral, Qingdao, St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, St Nicholas, Blakeney, Vkhutemas, West Wycombe Park
Chicago Landmarks, National Treasures of Japan (castles), National Treasures of Japan (shrines), Pritzker Prize, New churches by John Douglas, Church restorations, amendments and furniture by John Douglas, Houses and associated buildings by John Douglas, Non-ecclesiastical and non-residential works by John Douglas, Scheduled monuments in Maidstone, Works by Charles Holden, Grade I listed buildings in: Bath and North East Somerset, Maidstone, Mendip, North Somerset, Sedgemoor, South Somerset, Taunton Deane, West Somerset, List of tallest buildings in: Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Dubai, Hong Kong, Las Vegas, London, Los Angeles, Manchester, Miami, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Providence, San Francisco, Shanghai, Singapore, Tokyo, Toronto, Tulsa, Vancouver, Listed buildings in: Runcorn (urban area), Runcorn (rural area), Widnes
Architects: William Adam, Antoni Gaudí, Zvi Hecker, Bjarke Ingels, Timothy L. Pflueger, Antonin Raymond, Kenzo Tange. Buildings: 108 North State Street, 5th Avenue Theatre, Akhtala monastery, Akshardham Temple, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Algonquin Hotel, Andriyivskyy Descent, AT&T Corporate Center, Ballard Carnegie Library, Baths of Zeuxippus, Beaumont House, Benjaminville Friends Meeting House and Burial Ground, Blackstone Library, The Casbah Coffee Club, Central Troy Historic District, Chana School, Chester Cathedral, Chester Rows, Chicago Spire, Chicago Theatre, Chrysler Building, Churche's Mansion, Clinton Presidential Center, Crown Fountain, Dolphinarium, Dunstaffnage Castle, Eaton Hall, Cheshire, Édifice Price, Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, Elgin Cathedral, Ellwood House, The Exchange, Bristol, Forbidden City, Fort Greble, Fort Pasir Panjang, Golubac fortress, Great Mosque of Gaza, Haapsalu Castle, Halton Castle, Harold Washington Cultural Center, Heller House, Historic Michigan Boulevard District, Hull House, Hurva Synagogue, Imbrex and tegula, Imperial War Museum North, Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos, Joffrey Tower, Joseph F. Glidden House, Kaunas Fortress, Liverpool Town Hall, Louvre, Manila Hotel, Marquette Building (Chicago), Mezhyhirskyi Monastery, Millennium Stadium, National Gallery, London, National Police Memorial, New Bedford Historic District, Old Louisville, Old St Paul's Cathedral, One Bayfront Plaza, One Times Square, Onion dome, Oregon Public Library, Pavillon de Flore, Peckforton Castle, Presidio of Santa Barbara, Queen's Pier, Rancho Camulos, Robot Building, Rock N Roll McDonald's, Roman Baths (Bath), Rookery Building, Roslin Castle, Senate House (University of London), Shamrock Hotel, Smederevo Fortress, Sycamore Historic District, St Mary's Church, Acton, St Mary's Church, Nantwich, St Mary's Church, Nether Alderley, St Thomas the Martyr's Church, Oxford, Sunol Water Temple, Taipei 101, Taj Mahal, TCF Bank Stadium, University Mall (Little Rock, Arkansas), University of Illinois Observatory, University of Virginia, Upper Brook Street Chapel, Manchester, Valley of the Kings, Via della Conciliazione, Victoria Rooms (Bristol), Vilnius Castle Complex, Waller Hall, Walls of Constantinople, Walls of Dubrovnik, Wales Millennium Centre, Wells Cathedral, World Trade Center, Zhenguo Temple. Cities, countries and regions: Architecture of Denmark, Architecture of Leeds, Architecture of Madagascar, Architecture of Norway, Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England, Buildings and architecture of Bath, Grade I listed buildings in Somerset