The Arctic- The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt.The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. (It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Sápmi would be included.) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada. The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi).
The Circle itself passes through eight countries. Canada, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, United States. Denmark which represents Greenland, and the Faroe Islands is a member of the Arctic Council. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. Very few people live north of the Arctic Circle due to the cold conditions. The three largest communities above the Arctic Circle are situated in Russia; Murmansk (population 325,100), Norilsk (135,000), and Vorkuta (85,000). Tromsø in Norway has about 62,000 inhabitants, whereas Rovaniemi in Finland—which lies slightly south of the line—has slightly fewer than 58,000.
The Circumpolar North or Arctic generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle and these indigenous peoples. Evenks, Inuit, Greenland, Northern Canada (Nunavut and Northwest Territories), Alaska, Chukotka (Russia) , Koryaks, Nenets, Khanty, Chukchi, Sami Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Kola peninsula in Russia and Yukaghirs.
The Climate of the Arctic
is characterized broadly by long, cold winters and short, cool summers. There is a large amount of variability in climate
across the Arctic
, but all regions experience extremes of solar radiation
in both summer and winter. Some parts of the Arctic are covered by ice (sea ice
, glacial ice
, or snow
) year-round, and nearly all parts of the Arctic experience long periods with some form of ice on the surface. Average January temperatures range from about −40 to 0 °C (−40 to +32 °F), and winter temperatures can drop below −50 °C (−58 °F) over large parts of the Arctic. Average July temperatures range from about −10 to +10 °C (14 to 50 °F), with some land areas occasionally exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) in summer.
The Arctic consists of ocean that is nearly surrounded by land. As such, the climate of much of the Arctic is moderated by the ocean water, which can never have a temperature below −2 °C (28 °F). In winter, this relatively warm water keeps the North Pole from being the coldest place in the Northern Hemisphere, and it is also part of the reason that Antarctica is so much colder than the Arctic. In summer, the presence of the near-by water keeps coastal areas from warming as much as they might otherwise, just as it does in temperate regions with maritime climates.
(January 2, 1901 – November 11, 1939) was an American forester
and writer, as well as a wilderness activist and explorer. The son of wealthy constitutional lawyer
and wilderness advocate Louis Marshall
, Bob Marshall was first exposed to nature as a young child. He quickly developed a love for the outdoors, visiting the Adirondack Mountains
numerous times to hike and climb, becoming one of the first Adirondack Forty-Sixers
. He also traveled to the Alaskan
wilderness and authored numerous articles and publications, including the 1933 bestselling book Arctic Village
A scientist with a Doctor of Philosophy in plant physiology, Marshall became independently wealthy after the death of his father. He was also a supporter of socialism and civil liberties and held two significant public posts during his life: chief of forestry in the Bureau of Indian Affairs, from 1933 to 1937, and head of recreation management in the Forest Service, from 1937 to 1939. Defining wilderness as a social as well as an environmental ideal, Marshall was the first to suggest a formal, national organization of individuals dedicated to the preservation of primeval land.
- Hidden in wonder and snow, or sudden with summer, This land stares at the sun in a huge silence Endlessly repeating something we cannot hear. Inarticulate, arctic, Not written on by history, empty as paper, It leans away from the world with songs in its lakes Older than love, and lost in the miles.
Panoramic view of Midnight sun panorama of the north-western part of the town Upernavik in Greenland.
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