Portal:Arizona

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Arizona (Listeni/ɛrɪˈznə/; /ærɪˈznə/) (Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak) is a state of the United States, located in the southwestern region of the country. Arizona is also part of the Western United States and of the Mountain West states. Arizona is the sixth most extensive and the 16th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. The second largest city is Tucson, followed in population by eight cities of the Phoenix metropolitan area: Mesa, Glendale, Chandler, Scottsdale, Gilbert, Tempe, Peoria, and Surprise.

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, having achieved statehood on February 14, 1912. Arizona is noted for its desert climate in its southern half, where there are very hot summers and quite mild winters. The northern half of Arizona also features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees, a very large, high plateau (the Colorado Plateau) and some mountain ranges—such as the San Francisco Mountains—as well as large, deep canyons, where there is much more moderate weather for three seasons of the year, plus significant snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Alpine. Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. Arizona has borders with New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, and Mexico, and it has one point in common with the southwestern corner of Colorado. Arizona has a 389-mile (626 km)-long international border with the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California.

Arizona is one of the most populous landlocked states of the United States. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, several national forests, national parks, and national monuments are located in Arizona. About one-quarter of Arizona is federal land that serves as the home of the Navajo Nation; the Hopi tribe; the Tohono O'odham; the Apache tribe; the Yaqui peoples; and various Yuman tribes, such as the Yavapai people, the Quechan people, and the Hualapai people.

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Figure 1. A geologic cross section of the Grand Canyon.
The geology of the Grand Canyon area exposes one of the most complete sequences of rock anywhere, representing a period of nearly 2 billion years of the Earth's history in that part of North America. The major sedimentary rock layers exposed in the Grand Canyon and in the Grand Canyon National Park area range in age from 200 million to nearly 2 billion years old. Most were deposited in warm, shallow seas and near ancient, long-gone sea shores. Both marine and terrestrial sediments are represented, including fossilized sand dunes from an extinct desert.Uplift of the region started about 75 million years ago in the Laramide orogeny, a mountain-building event that is largely responsible for creating the Rocky Mountains to the east. Accelerated uplift started 17 million years ago when the Colorado Plateaus (on which the area is located) were being formed. In total these layers were uplifted an estimated 10,000 feet (3000 m) which enabled the ancestral Colorado River to cut its channel into the four plateaus that constitute this area.

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Horseshoe Bend
Credit: Chmehl

A panoramic view of Horseshoe Bend, a horseshoe-shaped meander in the Colorado River, from State Route 89. It is located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Page, Arizona, slightly downstream from the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell.

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  • ... that Dwight B. Heard is credited with making Arizona's cotton industry more competitive after becoming president of the Arizona Cotton Association?

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Major Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO
Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (May 11, 1861September 1, 1947), was an American scout and world traveling adventurer best known for his service as Chief of Scouts to the British Army in Colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft (i.e., scoutcraft) to Robert Baden-Powell, becoming one of the inspirations to the founding of the Scouting Movement. But much earlier in his life, Burnham worked as a cowboy and a hired gun in Arizona for the losing side of the Pleasant Valley War, the most violent of the range wars. Marked for death and almost killed by a bounty hunter, he made the difficult journey out of Globe and hid out in Tombstone. In the 1880s in Arizona, he fought against the Apache, was hired as a scout for the U.S. Army in the Geronimo champaign, worked the mines, guarded Wells Fargo shipments, and became a professional hunter. Burnham is also known for having worked with Arizona boy scouts in 1936 on a state-wide campaign to save the Bighorn Sheep. This effort led to the establishment of two federally protected bighorn game ranges in Arizona, which Burnham himself dedicated in 1939: Kofa National Wildlife Refuge and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. His son was captain of the University of Arizona football team (1905-1908), and several of his descendants still reside in Arizona. His grandson, Russell Adam Burnham, is a Tucson native and was the U.S. Army's Soldier of the Year in 2003, and the U.S. Army Medical Corps NCO of the Year in 2007.

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