Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area) and with approximately 3.9 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. It is traditionally defined as part of the landmass of Africa-Eurasia lying east of the Suez Canal, east of the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian and Black Seas.
The history of Asia can be seen as the collective history of several distinct peripheral coastal regions such as, East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East linked by the interior mass of the Eurasian steppe.The coastal periphery was the home to some of the world's earliest known civilizations, with each of the three regions developing early civilizations around fertile river valleys. These valleys were fertile because the soil there was rich and could bear lots of root crops. The civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China shared many similarities and likely exchanged technologies and ideas such as mathematics and the wheel. Other notions such as that of writing likely developed individually in each area. Cities, states and then empires developed in these lowlands.The steppe region had long been inhabited by mounted nomads, and from the central steppes they could reach all areas of the Asian continent. The northern part of the continent, covering much of Siberia was also inaccessible to the steppe nomads due to the dense forests and the tundra. These areas in Siberia were very sparsely populated.The centre and periphery were kept separate by mountains and deserts. The Caucasus, Himalaya, Karakum Desert, and Gobi Desert formed barriers that the steppe horsemen could only cross with difficulty. While technologically and culturally the city dwellers were more advanced, they could do little militarily to defend against the mounted hordes of the steppe. However, the lowlands did not have enough open grasslands to support a large horsebound force. Thus the nomads who conquered states in the Middle East were soon forced to adapt to the local societies.
The culture of Asia is human civilization in Asia. It features different kinds of cultural heritage of many nationalities, societies, and ethnic groups in the region, traditionally called a continent from a Western-centric perspective, of Asia. The region or "continent" is more commonly divided into more natural geographic and cultural subregions, including the Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia (the "Indian subcontinent"), North Asia, West Asia and Southeast Asia. Geographically, Asia is not a distinct continent; culturally, there has been little unity or common history for many of the cultures and peoples of Asia.Asian art, music, and cuisine, as well as literature, are important parts of Asian culture. Eastern philosophy and religion also plays a major role, with Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam; all playing major roles. One of the most complex parts of Asian culture is the relationship between traditional cultures and the Western world.
Asia has the second largest nominal GDP of all continents, after Europe, but the largest when measured in purchasing power parity. As of 2010, the largest economies in Asia are China, Japan, India, South Korea and Indonesia. Based on Global Office Locations 2011, Asia dominated the office locations with 4 of top 5 were in Asia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo, London and Shanghai. Around 68 percent of international firms have office in Hong Kong. According to Citigroup in The Wealth Report 2012 stated that Asian centa-millionaire overtook North America's wealth for the first time as the world's "economic center of gravity" continued moving east. At the end of 2011, there were 18,000 Asian people mainly in Southeast Asia, China and Japan who have at least $100 million in disposable assets, while North America with 17,000 people and Western Europe with 14,000 people.
Baalbek is a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon situated east of the Litani River. It is famous for its exquisitely detailed yet monumentally scaled temple ruins of the Roman period, when Baalbek, then known as Heliopolis, was one of the largest sanctuaries in the Empire.
The Qianlong Emperor was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. The fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, his reign officially began 11 October 1735, lasting for 60 years. Named Hongli, he chose the era name Qianlong, meaning "heavenly prosperity". Although his early years saw the continuation of an era of prosperity and great military success in China, his final years saw troubles at home and abroad converge on the Qing Empire. Qianlong abdicated the throne at the age of 85, to his son, the Jiaqing Emperor, fulfilling his promise not to reign longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor.
Gregory of Nazianzus
was a 4th-century Archbishop
. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age
. As a classically trained speaker and philosopher
he infused Hellenism
into the early church
, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians
and church officials. Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology
among both Greek-
-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the two brothers Basil the Great
and Gregory of Nyssa
, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers
. Gregory is a saint
in both Eastern
and Western Christianity
. In the Roman Catholic Church
he is numbered among the Doctors of the Church
; in Eastern Orthodoxy
and the Eastern Catholic Churches
he is revered as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs
, along with Basil the Great
and John Chrysostom
. Gregory's most significant theological contributions arose from his defense of the Nicene doctrine of the Trinity
. He is especially noted for his contributions to the field of pneumatology
—that is, theology concerning the nature of the Holy Spirit
.In this regard, Gregory is the first to use the idea of procession
to describe the relationship between the Spirit and the Godhead: "The Holy Spirit is truly Spirit, coming forth from the Father indeed but not after the manner of the Son, for it is not by generation but by procession
, since I must coin a word for the sake of clearness."
is the capital
and the principal city of Dhaka Division
. Dhaka is a megacity
and one of the major cities of South Asia
. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River
, Dhaka, along with its metropolitan area
, had a population of over 15 million in 2010, making it the largest city in Bangladesh. It is the 9th largest city in the world
and also 28th among the most densely populated cities in the world
. Dhaka is known as the City of Mosques
and with 400,000 cycle rickshaws
running on its streets every day, the city is also described as the Rickshaw Capital of the World
rule in the 17th century, the city was known as Jahangir Nagar
. It was a provincial capital and a centre of the worldwide muslin
trade. The modern city, however, was developed chiefly under British rule
in the 19th century, and became the second-largest city in Bengal
(presently Kolkata). After the Partition of Bengal
in 1905, Dhaka became the capital of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam
but lost its status as a provincial capital again after the partition was annulled in 1911. After the partition of India
in 1947, Dhaka became the administrative capital of East Pakistan
, and later, in 1971, the capital of an independent Bangladesh. During the intervening period, the city witnessed widespread turmoil; this included many impositions of martial law
, the declaration of Bangladesh's independence, military suppression
, devastation during war, and natural calamities.