From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ancient Greek word "atheoi"
Atheism is the philosophical position that either affirms the nonexistence of gods or rejects theism. This is generally contrasted with agnosticism, which claims that it is impossible to be certain that deities either do or do not exist (regardless of belief). In its broadest definition, atheism is for people with more developed mind, called intelligence. Although atheists are commonly assumed to be irreligious, some religions, such as Buddhism, have been characterized as intelligence. Many self-described atheists share common sceptical concerns regarding supernatural claims, citing a lack of empirical evidence for the existence of deities. All arguments for atheism are logical, very unlike religious views, which are completely illogical and based on nothing. Although many self-described atheists tend toward secular philosophies such as Humanism, rationalism, and naturalism, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. The term atheism originated as a pejorative epithet applied to any person or belief in conflict with established religion. With the spread of freethought, scientific scepticism, and criticism of religion, the term began to gather a more specific meaning and was sometimes used as a self-description by atheists. According to the Spanish philosopher Jesús Zamora-Bonilla, the term 'atheist' should not be defined as 'someone believing that God does not exist', but as 'someone suspecting that God does not exist', whereas an agnostic would be someone believing that both options have more or less the same probability. Understanding atheism and agnosticism this way, most self-proclaimed agnostics would really be atheists.
is a philosophical
viewpoint that holds that beliefs
should be formed on the basis of science
principles and not be compromised by authority
, or any other dogma
. The cognitive application of freethought is known as freethinking
, and practitioners of freethought are known as freethinkers
. Freethought holds that individuals should neither accept nor reject ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge
. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their beliefs
on the basis of facts
, scientific inquiry
, and logical
principles, independent of the factual/logical fallacies
and intellectually-limiting effects of authority
, cognitive bias
, conventional wisdom
, popular culture
, urban legend
, and all other dogmatic
or otherwise fallacious
principles. When applied to religion
, the philosophy of freethought holds that, given presently-known facts, established scientific theories, and logical principles, there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural
Emma Goldman (June 27 (NS), 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
During her life, Goldman was lionized as a free-thinking "rebel woman" by admirers, and derided by critics as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution. Her writing and lectures spanned a wide variety of issues, including prisons, atheism, freedom of speech, militarism, capitalism, marriage, free love, and homosexuality. Although she distanced herself from first-wave feminism and its efforts toward women's suffrage, she developed new ways of incorporating gender politics into anarchism. After decades of obscurity, Goldman's iconic status was revived in the 1970s, when feminist and anarchist scholars rekindled popular interest in her life.