Portal:Australian roads

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Introduction

Historical photograph of a narrow road through vegetation
Road through the Australian bush c. 1895
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Australia's earliest needs for trade and travel were met by narrow bush tracks, used by tribes of Indigenous Australians prior to European settlement. The formal construction of roads began in 1788 in the newly formed colony of New South Wales. Road construction programs in the early 19th century were generally underfunded, as they were dependent on government budgets, loans, and tolls, while there was a huge increase in road usage, due to the Australian gold rushes. Local government authorities, often known as Road Boards, were therefore established to be primarily responsible for funding and undertaking road construction and maintenance. The early 1900s saw both the increasingly widespread use of motorised transportation, and the creation of state road authorities in each state, between 1913 and 1926, to manage each state's arterial road network. The federal government became involved in road funding in the 1920s, distributing funding to the states. The depression of the 1930s slowed the funding and development of the major road network until the onset of World War II. Supply roads leading to the north of the country were considered vital, resulting in the construction of Barkly, Stuart, and Eyre highways.

The decades following the war saw substantial improvements to the network, with freeways established in cities, many major highways sealed, development of rural roads in northern Queensland and Western Australia, and interstate routes upgraded. In 1974, the federal government assumed responsibility for funding the nations most important road links, between state and territory capitals cities, which were declared National Highways. Those roads were gradually improved, and by 1989, all gravel road sections had been sealed. In the following decades, the National Highway system was amended through legislation, and was eventually superseded in 2005 by the broader National Land Transport Network, which includes connections to major commercial centres, and intermodal freight transport facilities.

The first route marking system was introduced to Australia in the 1950s. National Routes were assigned to significant interstate routes – the most important road links in the country. National Route 1 was designated to a circular route around the Australian coastline. A state route marking system was designed to supplement the national system, for inter-regional and urban routes within states. When the National Highway system was introduced, National Routes along it became National Highway routes with the same numbers, but with distinctive green and gold route markers. During the late 1970s, planning began for a new alphanumeric route system in the state of Tasmania. Alphanumeric routes have since been introduced in most states and territories in Australia, partially or completely replacing the previous systems.

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View of Sydney and the Sydney Opera House from Jeffrey Street at dusk

Jeffrey Street or Jeffreys Street, Kirribilli, New South Wales is a street famous for being one of the most popular vantage points for views of the city of Sydney, the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House. The street is located on the Lower North Shore of Sydney Harbour, directly across the harbour from Circular Quay and is a popular destination for tourists, particularly on Australia Day and New Year's Eve. The street leads uphill from the harbour in a northerly direction to the small shopping village of Kirribilli. The vicinity of Jeffrey Street is reported to be the site of the first European settlement on the lower North Shore of Sydney Harbour, about 10 years after the colonisation of Australia at Sydney Cove in 1788. North Sydney Council favours the spelling of the street as "Jeffreys" as this correctly renders the surname of a 19th-century local landowner, Arthur Jeffreys. However, a Thomas Jeffrey was also a prominent early Kirribilli resident and the Wharf bears his name. Furthermore, some records report that a John Jeffreys was an early resident. Almost all historical references refer to Jeffrey Street so the provenance or derivation of the street name is uncertain. In December 2011 a heritage conservation area called the Jeffreys Street Conservation Area was established. With 19 listed heritage properties, the street has one of the highest concentrations of listed heritage properties in Australia.

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Did you know...

  • ... that a committee in the 1920s raised the funds to turn a collection of tracks into Anzac Avenue, the longest World War I memorial road in Queensland?
  • ... that local Aboriginal activist Michael Mansell called for the Brighton Bypass to be scrapped, stating that to continue construction "would be cultural vandalism, on an extreme scale"?
  • ... that grader which broke down during construction of Gary Junction Road had to be towed over 800 kilometres (500 mi), travelling at just 3 kilometres per hour (1.9 mph)?

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