Beer is the world's most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—the most common of which is malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavorings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. Alcoholic beverages distilled after fermentation, fermented from non-starch sources such as grape juice (wine) or honey (mead), or fermented from un-malted starches (rice wine) are not classified as beer.
Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi," a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.
The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries and are commonly categorized into two main types—the globally popular pale lagers, and the regionally distinct ales, which are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv.) though may range from less than 1% abv., to over 20% abv. in rare cases.
Beer forms part of the culture of various beer-drinking nations and has acquired various social traditions and associations, such as beer festivals and a rich pub culture involving activities such as pub crawling or pub games such as bar billiards.
The Beer WikiProject
WikiProject Beer is an association of Wikipedians with an interest in beer and beer-related subjects. They have come together to coordinate the development of beer and brewery articles here on Wikipedia. Additionally, other groups have formed other projects that entertain subjects that are directly related to beer, bartending and pubs. Additionally, the mixed drinks project covers topics that include beer cocktails. If any of these subjects pique your interest, please feel free to visit their projects. These groups would love to have you participate!
Barley wine is a style of strong ale originating in England in the nineteenth century, but now brewed worldwide. The term was originally coined around 1900 by Bass to refer to their No. 1 Ale. It is the strongest member of the bitter family of styles, and is similar to the tripel styles of abbey beers and Trappist beers.
It typically reaches an alcohol strength of 8–12% abv and is brewed from specific gravities as high as 1.120. Their natural sweetness is usually balanced with a degree of hoppy bitterness. Most barley wines range in colour from ambers to deep reddish-browns.
It is called a barley wine because it can be as strong as wine; but since it is made from grain rather than fruit, it is in fact a beer. In the United States barley wines are required for this reason to be called "barley wine-style ales." This is taken by some to imply that they are not truly barley wines; in fact it only means that they, like any barley wines, are not truly wines.
Charles N. "Charlie" Papazian is an American nuclear engineer who founded the Association of Brewers and wrote The Complete Joy of Homebrewing.
In 1979 Papazian founded the Association of Brewers and remained President of that organization until 2005, when the Association of Brewers merged with the 63-year-old Brewers Association of America, and Papazian was named President of the combined organization. Papazian also founded the American Homebrewers Association in 1978, and remains President of that organization as of August 2005. Other organizations and annual events subsequently founded by Papazian include the Institute for Brewing Studies, Brewers Publications, the Great American Beer Festival, the World Beer Cup, and Zymurgy magazine.
In 1984, Papazian wrote his first book on the subject of homebrewing, titled The Complete Joy of Homebrewing. As of August 2005, The Complete Joy of Homebrewing has seen 25 reprintings, 3 editions, and has sold over 900,000 copies. As the first (and, for over a decade, the only) mass-market book to provide in-depth information on subject of how to brew beer in the home, The Complete Joy of Homebrewing was very often the sole source of homebrewing information for novice homebrewers. Consequently, the book has gained iconic status among the homebrewing community, and is frequently referred to as the "homebrewer's bible." Papazian has since written five more books.
Molson Coors Brewing Company
was created by the merger of two of North America's largest breweries
of the United States
, on February 9, 2005. The Canadian subsidiary of Molson Coors Brewing Company is a part-owner of Brewers Retail Inc.
, operator of Ontario
's The Beer Store
retail chain. According to the Molson Coors website, MCBC is the fifth-largest brewer by volume with 48.3 million hectolitres
or 41.2 million barrels sold in 2005.
Produced by Carlton & United Beverages
Victoria Bitter has the highest market share of all beer sold in Australia, both on tap and packaged. It is brewed by Carlton & United Beverages, a subsidiary of Foster's Group, brewers of the Fosters brand beer. Despite its name, it is technically a fairly standard commercial lager rather than a bitter, although perhaps slightly more bitter than many. It is available in New Zealand, the UK, and to a limited extent, other countries abroad.
||Well ya see, Norm, it's like this... A herd of buffalo can only move as fast as the slowest buffalo, and when the herd is hunted, it is the slowest and weakest ones at the back that are killed first. This natural selection is good for the herd as a whole, because the general speed and health of the whole group keeps improving by the regular killing of the weakest members. In much the same way, the human brain can only operate as fast as the slowest brain cells. Excessive intake of alcohol, as we know, kills brain cells, but naturally it attacks the slowest and weakest brain cells first. In this way, regular consumption of beer eliminates the weaker brain cells, making the brain a faster and more efficient machine. That's why you always feel smarter after a few beers.
The Buffalo Theory as explained on an episode of Cheers by Cliff Clavin to his drinking buddy, Norm Peterson
Interior view of the Toll Gate Saloon, Black Hawk, Colorado; shows arched entry windows, swinging front doors, stove in front left foreground, wooden floor with stains, and calendar from 1897 on entryway wall. Three men occupy the saloon. One bartender stands behind the bar; two others stand in front of the bar. The man in the foreground has his foot on the bar rail and holds a cigar. The man to the rear leans on the bar and holds a beer in his right hand. Three mounted animal heads are over the center mirror; liquor bottles line the shelves on either side of the mirror behind the bartender. Brass spittoon appears on floor. "Bayle's Salted Buttercorn, St. Louis" sign appears in the foreground.
The following are categories relating to beer.
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