Portal:Boston

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Boston

Bostonstraight.jpg
Boston (pronounced ˈbɒstən), located in Suffolk County, is the capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is considered the unofficial economic and cultural center of the entire New England region ("The Capital of New England"). The city, which had an estimated population of 617,594 at the 2010 census, lies at the center of the Cambridge–Boston-Quincy metropolitan area — the 11th-largest metropolitan area (5th largest CSA) in the U.S., with a population of 4.4 million. Residents of Boston are referred to as Bostonians.

In 1630, Puritan colonists from England founded the city on the Shawmut Peninsula. During the late eighteenth century, Boston was the location of several major events during the American Revolution, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. Several early battles of the American Revolution, such as the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Siege of Boston, occurred within the city and surrounding areas. After American independence was attained, Boston became a major shipping port and manufacturing center, and its rich history now attracts 16.3 million visitors annually. The city was the site of several firsts, including America's first public school, Boston Latin School (1635), and first college, Harvard College (1636), in neighboring Cambridge. Boston was also home to the first subway system in the United States, which is currently run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

Through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the peninsula. Numerous colleges and universities in Boston, including Harvard University, Boston University, and Northeastern University, rank among the top colleges in the world. With many colleges and universities within the city and surrounding area, Boston is a center of higher education and a center for health care. The city's economy is also based on research, finance, and technology — principally biotechnology. Boston's Chiantown is one of the most densely populated areas and incorporates one of the largest Asian-American populations in the Western Hemisphere. Hundreds of languages are spoken in Boston, making it among the most diverse in the world. Boston has been experiencing gentrification and has one of the highest costs of living in the United States.

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101st Fighter Squadron F-47N Thunderbolts Logan Airport 1946 Republic P-47N-25-RE Thunderbolt 44-89347 in foreground
The United States Air Force's 102d Intelligence Wing (102 IW), of the Massachusetts Air National Guard, is a military intelligence unit located at Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts. Its primary subordinate operational unit is the 101st Intelligence Squadron. According to the Air Force, the history of the 102d begins with the 318th Fighter Group, which was active during World War II. After the war, the 318th was inactivated, and eventually the 102d Fighter Wing was formed, which had a direct lineage link. In 1946, the 102d was activated at Logan International Airport where it stayed until 1968, when it moved to Otis Air Force Base. Beginning in 1946, the wing began regular patrols of the Northeastern United States which took place in conjunction with Air Force active duty units. In 1968, the 102d was moved to Otis, where it continued its regular patrols until 1973.

During the time that the wing had a flying mission, the wing deployed to many locations around the globe to assist in missions for the Air Force. In 1961, the wing deployed to France during the Berlin Crisis. Twenty eight years later, the wing deployed to Panama during Operation Coronet Nighthawk. It also participated in Operation Northern Watch, helping to patrol the No-Fly Zone north of the 36th parallel in Iraq. During the 11 September attacks, the 102d Fighter Wing deployed the first Air Force aircraft toward New York City, but they arrived too late to stop the attacks.

Over the years, the wing has controlled many other Air National Guard units. Following the inactivation of the 67th Fighter Wing in November 1950, the wing was put in charge of a few fighter units on the Atlantic Coast. In 1976, the wing even became responsible for the 147th Fighter Interceptor Group, located in Texas.

Military downsizing through the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process removed the wing's F-15C Eagles beginning in 2007, leaving the 102d with an intelligence gathering mission. If activated to federal service, the Wing is gained by the United States Air Force Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency, and is one of three Air National Guard wings under this agency. As commonwealth militia units, the units in the 102d Intelligence Wing are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts National Guard unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States.


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South Station and Atlantic Avenue Elevated 1904 (2).jpg
South Station in Boston, circa 1904.

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Portrait of Paul Revere by John Singleton Copley, c.1768–70

Paul Revere (bap. December 22, 1734 (OS) / January 1, 1735 (NS) – May 10, 1818) was an American silversmith and a patriot in the American Revolution.

Because he was immortalized after his death for his role as a messenger in the battles of Lexington and Concord, Revere's name and his "midnight ride" are well-known in the United States as a patriotic symbol. In his lifetime, Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston craftsman, who helped organize an intelligence and alarm system to keep watch on the British military.

Revere later served as an officer in one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, a role for which he was later exonerated. After the war, he was early to recognize the potential for large-scale manufacturing of metal.


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