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Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest and most populous country in South America, and the fifth largest in the world in both area and population. Its territory covers 8,514,876.599 km² between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean and it is the easternmost country of the Americas. It borders Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the département of French Guiana to the north, Uruguay to the south, Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, and Colombia to the northwest. The only South American countries not bordered by Brazil are Ecuador and Chile.
The Brazilian coastline covers 7,367km (4,655 mi) along the Atlantic ocean. Numerous archipelagos are part of the Brazilian territory, such as Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade e Martim Vaz and Atol das Rocas. Tropical climate is predominant. In the south of the country, subtropical climate prevails. Brazil is traversed by the Equator and Tropic of Capricorn lines. It is home to varied fauna and flora and extensive natural resources.
The Brazilian population tends to concentrate along the coastline in large urban centers. While Brazil has one of the largest populations in the world, population density is low and the inner continental land has large demographical empty spaces. It is a multiracial country composed of European, Amerindian, African and Asian elements, more often combined in the same individual than separated into different communities. The official language is Portuguese, and it is the only Portuguese-speaking country in all the Americas. Catholicism is the predominant religion, though Protestant communities have experienced significant growth in the last decades. Brazil has the largest Roman Catholic population in the world.
), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil
: República Federativa do Brasil
) listen (help·info)
, is a country in South America
. It is the fifth largest
country by geographical area, the fifth most populous
country, and the fourth most populous democracy
in the world. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean
on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela
and the overseas department of French Guiana
; on the northwest by Colombia
; on the west by Bolivia
; on the southwest by Argentina
and on the south by Uruguay
. Numerous archipelagos
are part of the Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha
, Rocas Atoll
, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks
, and Trindade and Martim Vaz
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until its independence in 1822. Initially independent as the Brazilian Empire, the country has been a republic since 1889, even though its bicameral legislature (now called Congress) dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federal Republic. The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.
(Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃tus duˈmõw̃]
; July 20, 1873 – July 23, 1932) was an early pioneer of aviation
. He was born and died in Brazil
. He spent most of his adult life in France
. His contributions to aviation took place while he was living in Paris
Santos-Dumont designed, built, and flew the first practical dirigible balloons. In doing so he became the first person to demonstrate that routine, controlled flight was possible. This "conquest of the air", in particular winning the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize on October 19, 1901 on a flight that rounded the Eiffel Tower, made him one of the most famous people in the world during the early 20th century. In addition to his pioneering work in airships, Santos-Dumont made the first public European flight of an airplane in Paris on October 23, 1906. That aircraft, designated 14-bis or Oiseau de proie (French for "bird of prey"), was the first to take off, fly, and land without the use of catapults, high winds, launch rails, or other external assistance. For this achievement, Santos-Dumont is known in Brazil as "The Father of Aviation".
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