Portal:Bulgarian Empire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Show new selections

THE BULGARIAN EMPIRE PORTAL

Coat of Arms of the Bulgarian Empire in the 14th century
The Bulgarian Empire in its expansion in the 13th century

The First Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Първо Българско царство, Parvo Balgarsko Tsarstvo), was the first country of the contemporary Bulgarian people located in Southeastern Europe. Since its foundation it occupied a large part of the Balkan peninsula and struggled with the Byzantine Empire for control of the region.

Founded as a crude form of a confederacy between Bulgars, Slavs and Thracians in 681 on the two banks of the Danube river, it became the first Slavic country and is the oldest state still in existence in Europe. In 802-805 it destroyed the Avar Khanate and expanded its territory twice covering the whole area of contemporary Romania. During the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century in the course of the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars the Bulgarians took control of most of the Balkans. However in the mid 10th century the Empire suffered disastrous invasions of Magyars, Pechenegs and wars with Kievan Rus' and after a 50-year struggle it was destroyed by the Byzantines in 1018.

After the Christianization of Bulgaria the country became a major center of culture and learning. Literature flourished in the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools. The Bulgarian scholar Climent of Ohrid (840 - 916), who was a student of Saints Cyril and Methodius, invented the Cyrillic alphabet which carries the name of one of his teachers. The beauty and wealth of the new capital Preslav was compared by some contemporaries with Constantinople. In the 10th century in Bulgaria emerged one of the major heretic movements in Medieval Europe, the Bogomils.

The Second Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsartsvo) was established in 1185 as a result of the Uprising of Asen and Peter and reached the peak of its power under Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II before gradually being conquered by the Ottomans in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.

Up until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire was the dominant power in the Balkans. The Byzantines were defeated in several major battles, and in 1205 the newly-established Latin Empire was crushed in the battle of Adrianople by Emperor Kaloyan. His nephew, Ivan Asen II (r. 1218–1241), defeated the Despotate of Epiros and made Bulgaria a regional power once again. However, in the late 13th century the Empire declined under the constant invasions of Tatars, Byzantines, Hungarians, Serbs, and internal instability and revolts.

The capital Tarnovo became a major cultural, religious and literary center during 13th and 14th centuries and was considered by some as the Third Rome for a time. During the rule of Ivan Alexander (1331-1371) Bulgaria experienced its Second Golden Age.


Selected Article

Fresco of emperor Constantine Tikh, against whose rule the rebellion broke up.
The Uprising of Ivaylo (Bulgarian: Въстанието на Ивайло) was an uprising of the Bulgarian peasantry against the Emperor Constantine Tikh and the Bulgarian nobility. The revolt was fuelled by resentment at the beginning feudalization of the Bulgarian Empire, as well as by the failure to confront the Mongol menace over north-eastern Bulgaria, especially the region of Dobrudzha. Ivaylo proved to be a successful general, defeating the Mongols and the Tsar's armies, and forced the nobility to recognize him as Emperor of Bulgaria.

The Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos tried to exploit this situation and to help the nobility to quell the rebellion, but the Byzantines suffered two major defeats at the hands of Ivaylo. The Mongol intervention however forced him to flee to the important fortress of Silistra, where he was besieged. Thereupon, the nobility used his absence from the capital Tarnovo to proclaim George Terter I as emperor. Surrounded by enemies and with diminished support, Ivaylo had to flee to Nogai Khan and was later murdered by the Mongols.

Selected Biography

Chernorizets Hrabar (Old Church Slavonic: Чрьнори́зьць Хра́бръ, Črĭnorizĭcĭ Hrabrŭ; Bulgarian: Чрьнори́зьць Хра́бръ) was a Bulgarian monk, scholar and writer who worked at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century, developing Medieval Bulgarian literature and spreading Old Church Slavonic. His appellation is correctly translated as "Hrabar, the Black Robe Wearer" (i.e., Hrabar The Monk), "Hrabar" being his given name, chernorizets being the lowest rank in the monastic hierarchy. Sometimes he is referred to as "Chernorizets the Brave", brave being the translation of the given name.

No biographical information is available about him, but his name is usually considered to be a pseudonym used by one of the other famous men of letters at the Preslav Literary School or may be even by Tsar Simeon I (r. 893-927), since normally monks assume Christian names of biblical or early Christian onomastics. He was the author of "An Account of Letters" , one of the most admired and popular works of literature written in Old Church Slavonic.

Selected Picture

The Patriarch's Church on the top of the hill Tsarevets.
Credit: Kandi

The Patriarchal Cathedral of the Holy Ascension of God in Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire is situated at the top of the fortified Tsarevets hill. The late 11th and early 12th century edifice was the seat of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church for more than two centuries. It was part of a larger complex which accommodated the Patriarch.

Did You Know?

Nessebar Festungsmauern.jpg
  • ... that Nessebar (pictured) was an important and well-protected Black Sea port and had over 40 churches?

Things you can do

Nuvola apps kate.png Requested articles : Manuel IvatsTrapezitsaConquest of Serbia (924)Conquest of Serbia (998)Bulgarian-Khazar WarsVlachs in the First Bulgarian empireMedieval Bulgarian economyMedieval Bulgarian aristocracyWar of 894-896Joasaph of BdinCouncil of Tarnovo (1211)Council of Tarnovo (1360)VoysilRadoslavByadan

Nuvola kdict glass.png Expansion needed : KrumShishman dynastyDulo clanPliskaTarnovoTheodore SvetoslavBattle of Adrianople (1205)Siege of TarnovoKaloyanPeter IPereyaslavetsIrene Doukaina LaskarinaConstantine IIIvan Asen IIByzantine conquest of BulgariaGreat Basilica, Pliska

Cleanup and/or improvement needed : OhridBulgarsFirst Bulgarian EmpireSecond Bulgarian EmpireUprising of Peter DelyanUprising of IvayloByzantine–Bulgarian Wars

Nuvola apps kappfinder.png Requested images : Battle of KlokotnitsaCroatian-Bulgarian WarsOhrid Literary SchoolConstantine of Preslav


Topics

Battles Rulers
Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars
Bulgarian-Hungarian Wars
Croatian-Bulgarian Wars
Bulgarian-Rus' Wars
Bulgarian-Latin Wars
Bulgarian-Serbian Wars
Bulgarian-Ottoman Wars
Khans
Knyaze
Tsars (Emperors)
 
Capitals

Pliska

Preslav

Skopie

Ohrid

Tarnovo

Vidin

Related Portals