is a recreational and competitive game
played between two players
. The current form of Chess (sometimes called Western chess
or international chess
) has an international pedigree which evolved from similar, much older games in India
. The modern form of the game emerged in Southern Europe
during the second half of the 15th century. Today, chess is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs
, online, by correspondence
, and in tournaments
The game is played on a square chequered chessboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight square. At the start, each player (one controlling the white pieces, the other controlling the black pieces) controls sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in "check") and there is no way to remove it from attack on the next move.
The tradition of organized competitive chess started in the sixteenth century and has developed extensively. Chess today is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; Norwegian Grandmaster Magnus Carlsen is the current World Champion. Theoreticians have developed extensive chess strategies and tactics since the game's inception. Aspects of art are found in chess composition.
Selected article of the week
The title Grandmaster is awarded to strong chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from "World Champion", Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. Once achieved, the title is held for life. In chess literature it is usually abbreviated to GM (similarly, FM stands for FIDE Master and IM for International Master). The abbreviation IGM for International Grandmaster can also sometimes be found, particularly in older literature.
GM, IM, and FM are open to both men and women. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978, a number of women have earned the GM title. Since about 2000, most of the top 10 women have held the GM title. A separate gender-segregated title, WGM for Woman Grandmaster, is also available, but is something of a misnomer. It is awarded to women who attain a level of skill between that of a FIDE Master and an International Master.
FIDE also awards separate Grandmaster titles to composers and solvers of chess problems, see list of grandmasters of the FIDE for chess compositions.
The International Correspondence Chess Federation awards the title of International Correspondence Chess Grandmaster (ICCGM).
Read more about Grandmaster...
- ...that Jonathan Mestel, an applied mathematician, thrice the British national champion, the Fédération Internationale des Échecs world champion in the division of players aged fewer than 16 years, and a FIDE Grandmaster, won the 1997 World Chess Solving Championship and became the first player to be styled both an over-the-board and a problem solving Grandmaster?
- ...that, having moved from his native Germany to South Africa prior to the outbreak of World War Two, International Master Wolfgang Heidenfeld won the South African national championship eight times, first in 1939, and represented the nation at the 1958 Chess Olympiad contested in Munich, Germany, and subsequently moved to the Republic of Ireland, the national championship of which he claimed six times between 1958 and 1972 and which he represented at four Olympiads and one iteration of the European Team Championship?
- ...that Sun Tzu chess is a hybrid variant in which each player's back rank pieces are positioned randomly, with no forced player-player symmetry and no positional requirements (save that each player must have a white-squared and a black-squared bishop; in which a fog of war of imperfect information is imposed, such that a player may see only squares occupied by his own pieces or those squares to which any piece might move ?
All A-class articles are also recognized as Good articles.
|First-move advantage in chess
|Gossip, George H. D.
||Rules of chess
||Chess in Armenia
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