Chicago's population of approximately 3 million people and its metropolitan area of over 9 million people make it the third-most populous city and metropolitan area in the United States. Adjacent to Lake Michigan, it is the largest Great Lakes city and among the world's 25 largest urban areas by population. Incorporated as a city in 1837 after being founded in 1833 at the site of a portage, it became a transportation hub in North America and the financial capital of the Midwest. Since the World's Fair of 1893, it has been regarded as one of the ten most influential cities in the world. For example, diverse events such as Chicago Pile-1, the first man made nuclear reactor, and Chicago school architecture have changed human history, and the way urban spaces are organized. Chicago boasts some of the world's tallest buildings (Willis Tower, and Trump International Hotel and Tower). The University of Chicago is a leader in many fields and has contributed to academic thought, such as the Chicago school of economics or Chicago school of sociology.
Today, Chicago has diverse cultural offerings: teams from each of the major league sports (Bears, Blackhawks, Bulls, Cubs, and White Sox), a financial district anchored by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange on LaSalle Street in the Chicago Board of Trade Building, and an arts culture anchored by the Art Institute of Chicago and Millennium Park as well as Chicago Landmarks such as Wrigley Field. The Magnificent Mile is a fitting tribute for a city that has revolutionized retail merchandising with mail order catalogs, the money-back guarantee, bridal registry and using posted prices on goods.
Chicago hosts O'Hare (the world's second busiest) and Midway International Airports as well as the renowned 'L' rapid transit system. Chicago was once the capital of the railroad industry and the nation's meatpacking had its hub at the Union Stock Yards. Chicago has seen the influence of Al Capone. Recent members of the Cook County Democratic Party from Chicago include Chicago Mayors Richard J. Daley and his son Richard M. Daley, Chicago's first African-American Mayor, Harold Washington, the first African-American female United States Senator, Carol Mosley-Braun, and the first African-American United States President, former Senator Barack Obama.
Shimer College or just Shimer (// SHYE-mər) is a small, private, liberal arts college in Chicago. Founded in 1853 as the Mt. Carroll Seminary in Mt. Carroll, Illinois, by Frances Wood Shimer, it was a women's school for most of its early years. It joined with the University of Chicago (U. of C.) in 1896, and became one of the first U.S. junior colleges in 1907. It became a co-educational four-year college in 1950, took the name Shimer College, and adopted the Hutchins Plan of Great Books and Socratic seminars. The U. of C. relationship ended in 1958. Shimer enjoyed national recognition and strong growth in the 1960s but was forced by financial problems to abandon its campus in 1979. The college moved to a makeshift campus in Waukegan, Illinois until 2006, when it moved to the National Register of Historic Places-listed Ludwig Mies van der Rohe-designed main campus of the Illinois Institute of Technology in the Douglas community area of Chicago. Classes are exclusively small seminars in which students discuss original source material in lieu of textbooks. Shimer has a study abroad program in Oxford, England and a Weekend Program for adults. An Early Entrant program allows students who have not yet completed high school to matriculate. It has the highest rates of doctoral productivity of any U.S. liberal arts college. Half of its students go on to graduate study; twenty percent complete doctorate degrees. Shimer practices democratic self-governance to "an extent that is rare among institutions of higher education." Since 1977, the college has been governed internally by faculty, staff, and students. Shimer enrolled 100 students in 2009.
The Chicago Blackhawks are an American professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. They play in the Central Division of the Western Conference in the National Hockey League (NHL). The Blackhawks began their NHL play in the 1926–27 season as an expansion team with the Detroit Cougars and the New York Rangers, and is one of the Original Six teams. The franchise has three Stanley Cup championships, yet has a 49-season championship drought, the longest active streak in the NHL. There have been 37 head coaches for the Blackhawks. The franchise's first head coach was Pete Muldoon, who coached for 44 games in the 1926–27 season. However, he is also well remembered for allegedly "putting a curse" on the Blackhawks, which stipulated that the team would never finish in first in the NHL. The Blackhawks never had a first-place finish until 40 years after that incident. Hughie Lehman, originally the team's goaltender, became the Blackhawks' third head coach after yelling at the first Blackhawks owner, Frederic McLaughlin, that his proposed plays were "the craziest bunch of junk [he had] ever seen". Orval Tessier became the only head coach to have been awarded the Jack Adams Award with the Blackhawks by winning it in the 1982–83 season. Tommy Gorman, Tommy Ivan, and Rudy Pilous are the only Blackhawks head coaches to have been elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame as a builder. Gorman, Bill Stewart, and Pulios are the only coaches to have won a Stanley Cup championship as the head coach of the Hawks. Billy Reay, the Blackhawks' head coach for 14 seasons, is the franchise's all-time leader for the most regular-season and playoff games coached and wins, with 1012 regular-season games coached, 516 regular-season game wins, 117 playoff games coached, and 57 playoff game wins. Twenty-three head coaches spent their entire NHL head coaching careers with the Blackhawks. Darryl Sutter and Brian Sutter are the only pair of brothers to have coached the Blackhawks; both coached the Hawks for three seasons each. Joel Quenneville has been the head coach of the Blackhawks since the firing of Denis Savard during the 2008–09 season. (Read more...)
Milton Friedman was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. He made major contributions to the fields of macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history, and statistics. In 1976, he was awarded the Nobel memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy. He was an advocate of economic freedom. According to The Economist, Friedman "was the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century…possibly of all of it". Alan Greenspan stated "There are very few people over the generations who have ideas that are sufficiently original to materially alter the direction of civilization. Milton is one of those very few people." In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated minimizing the role of government in a free market as a means of creating political and social freedom. In his 1980 television series Free to Choose, Friedman explained his view of how free markets work, emphasizing his conviction that free markets have been shown to solve social and political problems that other systems have failed to address adequately. His books and columns for Newsweek were widely read, and even circulated underground behind the Iron Curtain.
"Chicago was a town where nobody could forget how the money was made. It was picked up from floors still slippery with blood." — Norman Mailer
The Chicago Board of Trade Building
houses the Chicago Board of Trade
, the world's largest futures and options exchange
. It is located at 141 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago
, in the Chicago Loop community area
. First designated a Chicago Landmark
on May 4, 1977, the building was subsequently listed as a National Historic Landmark
on June 2, 1978. The building was then added to the National Register of Historic Places
on June 16, 1978. The tallest building in Chicago for over 35 years the structure is known for its art-deco
architecture, sculptures and large scale stone carving
, as well as large trading floors. A popular sightseeing
attraction and motion picture location, the building has won awards
efforts and office management. The Chicago Board of Trade occupies 33 percent of available space, with financial and trading concerns occupying 54 percent of the 3-building complex. The landmark has been the site of a number of visits by dignitaries, including the Prince of Wales in October 1977. Trading operations have been used as scenes in movies such as Ferris Bueller's Day Off
, and the streetscape in the LaSalle Street canyon is used in the movies The Untouchables
and Road to Perdition
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