A Christmas village is a decorative, miniature-scale village often set up during the Christmas season. These villages are rooted in the elaborate Christmas traditions of the Pennsylvania Dutch. Mass-produced cardboard Christmas villages became popular in the United States during the early and mid-20th century, while porcelain versions (especially those created by the company Department 56) became popular in the later part of the century. The tradition of decorative Christmas villages is rooted in the holiday traditions of the Pennsylvania Dutch. In early-colonial American Moravian homes, the construction of a nativity scene at the base of a Christmas tree was a very common holiday activity. These nativity scenes soon became very elaborate, and often included sawdust or fine dirt spread to represent roads leading to the manger; stones and fresh moss to represent grottos or caves; and sticks and branches to represent miniature trees.
Christmas ornaments are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree. Ornaments take many different forms, from a simple round ball to highly artistic designs. Ornaments are often reused year after year, rather than purchased annually, and family collections often contain a combination of commercially produced ornaments and decorations created by family members.