The Second Crusade
(1145–1149) was the second major crusade
launched from Europe
, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa
the previous year. Edessa was the first of the Crusader states
to have been founded during the First Crusade
(1095–1099), and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III
, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France
and Conrad III of Germany
, with help from a number of other important European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe and were somewhat hindered by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus
; after crossing Byzantine
territory into Anatolia
, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks
. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem
and, in 1148, participated in an ill-advised attack on Damascus
. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims
. It would ultimately lead to the fall of Jerusalem
and the Third Crusade
at the end of the 12th century.
The only success came outside of the Mediterranean, where Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders, on the way by ship to the Holy Land, fortuitously stopped and helped the Portuguese in the capture of Lisbon in 1147. Some of them, who had departed earlier, helped capture Santarém earlier in the same year. Later they also helped to conquer Sintra, Almada, Palmela and Setúbal, and were allowed to stay in the conquered lands, where they had offspring. Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, the first of the Northern Crusades began with the intent of forcibly converting pagan tribes to Christianity, and these crusades would go on for centuries.
The Night Attack (Romanian: Atacul de noapte) was a skirmish fought between forces of Vlad III the Impaler (Ţepeş) of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire on 17 June 1462. The conflict initially started with Ţepeş's refusal to pay tribute to the Porte and intensified when Ţepeş invaded Bulgaria and impaled over 23,000 Turks and Bulgarians. Mehmed then raised a great army with the objective to conquer Wallachia and annex it to his empire. The two leaders fought a series of skirmishes, the most notable one being the Night Attack where Ţepeş attacked the Turkish camp in the night in an attempt to kill Mehmed. The assassination attempt failed and Mehmed marched to the Wallachian capital of Târgovişte, where he discovered another 20,000 impaled Turks and Bulgarians. Demoralised, the Sultan and his troops retreated.