THE CRUSADES PORTAL
The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal threats. Crusades were fought against Muslims, pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Jews, and political enemies of the popes. Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins.
The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. The term is also used to describe contemporaneous and subsequent campaigns conducted in territories outside the Levant usually against pagans, heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons. Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers led also to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade.
The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts, some of which have lasted into contemporary times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim, such as the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Christian Constantinople and the partition of the Byzantine Empire between Venice and the Crusaders.
The Treaty of Devol
was an agreement made in 1108 between Bohemond I
and Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos
(pictured), in the wake of the First Crusade
. Although the treaty was not immediately enforced, it was intended to make the Principality of Antioch
state of the Byzantine Empire
At the beginning of the First Crusade, Crusader armies assembled at Constantinople and promised to return to the Byzantine Empire any land they might conquer. However, Bohemond, the son of Alexios' former enemy Robert Guiscard, claimed the Principality of Antioch for himself. Alexios did not recognize the legitimacy of the Principality, and Bohemond went to Europe looking for reinforcements. He launched into open warfare against Alexios, but he was soon forced to surrender and negotiate with Alexios at the imperial camp at Diabolis (Devol), where the Treaty was signed.
Under the terms of the Treaty, Bohemond agreed to become a vassal of the Emperor and to defend the Empire whenever needed. He also accepted the appointment of a Greek Patriarch. In return, he was given the titles of sebastos and doux (duke) of Antioch, and he was guaranteed the right to pass on to his heirs the County of Edessa. Following this, Bohemond retreated to Apulia and died there. His nephew, Tancred, who was regent in Antioch, refused to accept the terms of the Treaty. Antioch came temporarily under Byzantine sway in 1137, but it was not until 1158 that it truly became a Byzantine vassal.
The Treaty of Devol is viewed as typical example of the Byzantine tendency to settle disputes through diplomacy rather than warfare, and was both a result of and a cause for the distrust between the Byzantines and their Western European neighbors.
[[Image:|center|420px|Battle of Diu (1509)]]
The Battle of Diu sometimes referred as the Second Battle of Chaul was a naval battle fought on February 3, 1509 in the Arabian Sea, near the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, the Zamorin of Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat, with technical naval support from the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik). The Portuguese victory was critical for its strategy of control of the Indian Ocean, setting its trade dominance for almost a century, and thus greatly assisted the growth of the Portuguese Empire. It marks also the beginning of the European colonial dominance in Asia. It also marks the spillover of the Christian-Islamic power struggle, in Europe and the Middle East, into the Indian Ocean which was the dominant region of international trade at that time.
After this battle, the Portuguese rapidly captured key ports and coastal areas in the Indian Ocean like Goa, Ceylon, Malacca and Ormuz. This allowed them to circumvent the traditional spice route controlled by the Arabs and the Venetians, and by routing the trade down the Cape of Good Hope, they simultaneously crippled the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and the Gujarat Sultanate. The Portuguese sea monopoly lasted until it was taken during the Dutch-Portuguese War, the British East India Company and the Battle of Swally in 1612.
: Hunyadi János
: Iancu de Hunedoara
: Ján Huňady
: Сибињанин Јанко / Sibinjanin Janko; c. 1387
– 11 August 1456), nicknamed The White Knight
was a Hungarian general (1444–1446) and Regent-Governor (1446–1453) of the Kingdom of Hungary
He is widely celebrated in Hungarian history as its most prominent, successful and powerful generalissimo who promoted a revision of dated military doctrine, as such a recognizably outstanding and iconic military opponent of the Ottoman Empire; in a sweeping scope of European military history was undoubtedly the pre-eminent strategist and tactician of the 15th century in Christendom. He was also a Voivode of Transylvania (1441-1446), the patriarch of the Hunyadi family, and father of the most renowned king in Hungarian history, King Matthias Corvinus.
Hunyadi's unique personal martial genius, prowess and wherewithal to prosecute preventive and very muscular aggressive crusading warfare policies that weld together many Christian nationalities against the onslaught of the vastly numerically superior Ottoman Moslem forces achieved a state of integrity, stalemate and détente for the Hungarian Kingdom and the many European states that lay to her periphery.
John Hunyadi's aim to re-organize the military ancien régime constituents of Hungary from strictly a feudal-based aristocratic levy into an efficient, professional, formidable standing army would bring reform to European military components everywhere in a 'post-Roman' European war-making society that his successor and son, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary would bring to its ultimate culmination with its ruthless Black Army of Hungary.
John Hunyadi is often considered the bellwether of the European "post-Roman" professional "Standing Army". Hunyadi is mostly renowned as one of the greatest Medieval field commanders of all time, his brilliant and prodigous overthrow of Mehmed II at the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 against overpowering odds is regarded as a seminal piece of European military history as "Having decided the fate of Christendom", and is as decisive a macro-significant event in European historiography as the 732 Battle of Tours and the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
To this very day worldwide, every Catholic and older Protestant churches tolling of church bells at noon means a commemoration of John Hunyadi's very historic victory over the Ottomans in 1456.
- Tag articles.
- Recruit interested editors.
- Collect categories, resource links, and templates.
- Expand the open task listing above.
- Create new articles where none exist. Report new articles of adequate length at Template talk:Did you know.
- Ensure accuracy of entries in Wikipedia lists and timelines. Fact check descriptions of Middle Ages military history within other types of articles.
- Expand and improve stubs.
- Raise existing articles to good article and featured article status.
- Recognize good work by awarding barnstars and good article tags where appropriate.
- Participate in active peer reviews:
- Participate in active Article Creation and Improvement Drive reviews:
- # Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
- # Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani
- # Baha ad-Din
- # Children's Crusade