The Czech Republic / / (Czech: Česká republika (help·info), short form in Czech: Česko, [ʧɛsko]), is a landlocked country in Central Europe and a member state of the European Union. The country has borders with Poland to the north, Germany to the northwest and southwest, Austria to the south, and Slovakia to the east. The capital and largest city is Prague (Czech: Praha), a major tourist destination. The country is composed of the historic regions of Bohemia and Moravia, as well as parts of Silesia.
Since the end of the 5th century on the territory of today's Czech appeared first Slavs. In the 7th century Slavic tribes formed Samo Empire (c. 623-659), was a rather even super-tribal union. Between 830 to 833 in Moravia, Slovak Republic, Hungary in the north and the west Transcarpathia was the Great Moravian Empire, which eventually included and Bohemia (890-894), Silesia, Lusatia, Little Poland and the rest of Hungary. Great Moravia was already the first state department. Bohemia broke away in 894 and in 906 or 907 has been disrupted was still nomadic Magyars.
The origins of the state could be found in the latter half of the 9th century, when it was baptized, inter alia, the first documented Czech prince Bořivoj I. of the dynasty Přemyslovci. During the 10th and 11th centuries it was consolidated and was attached to the territory of Moravia. Czech principality gradually acquired characters or less independent state within the medieval Holy Roman Empire (Prague bishopric was founded in 973, the main national saint became St. Wenceslas).
Czech kingdom was established, however, until 1198, when the German king recognized the Czech hereditary royal title, which is then confirmed by the Emperor and the Pope in 1212 and the Golden Bull of Sicily Přemyslovci Przemysl Otakar I , as well as other privileges of the Czech Kingdom . Czech monarch should henceforth be freed from all obligations towards the Holy Roman Empire up to participate in the imperial dream. Ottokar II . built a vast dominion that stretched beyond the Alps to the Adriatic Sea . Václav II . turned his attention to the north and east , where he managed to acquire land through Poland to the Baltic Sea, and his son Wenceslas III . and Hungarian territory. Its peak of power state during the last Přemyslovců and Charles IV . (1316-1378) , who in 1348 established the Czech lands and the Czech crown joined Brandenburg ( in 1415) , Lausitz ( in 1635) and Silesia ( in 1742) . After the burning of Jan Hus in 1415 in Constance, Germany is rivalry between the Catholics and the Hussites turned into open hostility and events resulted in the Hussite wars . Husité founded the city of Tabor , which became a center of the Hussite revolution and Jan Žižka and Prokop after defeating all four crusades in Bohemia. The wars were terminated by agreement between the Council of Basel and the Basel Compacts Hussites in 1436.
The Czech lands were under Habsburg rule from 1526, later becoming part of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. The independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War I. After the Munich Agreement, German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the consequent disillusion with the Western response and liberation of major part of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army, the Communist party gained the majority in 1946 elections. Czechoslovakia became a Communist party- ruled state from 1948 until the 1989 Velvet Revolution. On 1 January 1993, the country peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The Czech Republic is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy. President Miloš Zeman is the current head of state. The Prime Minister is the head of government (currently Jiří Rusnok). The Parliament has two chambers — the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. It is also a member of the OECD, the Visegrád group and the Council of Europe.
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated on the River Vltava in central Bohemia, Prague has been the political, cultural, and economic centre of the Czech state for over 1100 years. The city proper is home to more than 1.2 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 1.9 million.
Prague is widely considered to be one of the most beautiful cities in Europe with preserved examples from all periods of history (avoiding major calamities and wars) and is among the most visited cities on the continent. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. According to Guinness World Records, Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in the world. Nicknames for Prague have included "the mother of cities", "city of a hundred spires" and "the golden city".
Petr Čech is a Czech international football goalkeeper who plays for Chelsea F.C. and the Czech Republic. Čech previously played for Chmel Blšany, Sparta Prague, and Rennes. He was voted into the all-star team of Euro 2004 after helping his country reach the semi-finals. Čech also received the individual award of Best Goalkeeper in the 2004–05, 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons of the UEFA Champions League. In addition, he was named in the FIFPro and UEFA Champions League teams of the season in 2006.
Čech holds a number of goalkeeping records, including the Premier League record for fewest appearances required to reach 100 clean sheets, having done so in 180 league appearances. He also holds a Czech professional league record of not conceding a goal in 903 competitive minutes. In addition, he has a club record at his former club Sparta Prague, having gone 928 minutes unbeaten in all competitions in 2001–02, when his unbeaten run in Czech league competition was combined with his performances in the UEFA Champions League. During the 2004–05 season, Čech went 1,025 minutes without conceding a goal – a Premier League record, until it was surpassed by Edwin van der Sar of Manchester United on 27 January 2009. Čech also won the Golden Glove in both the 2004–05 and 2009–10 seasons.