Portal:Fungi/Selected species

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Selected species are articles about specific species of fungi that are of good quality.

To qualify to be a selected species, articles must meet three criteria-

  • Be about a specific species of fungi (not a genus or other related article)
  • Be illustrated with a freely licensed image of the species
  • Be recognised as a good article

Any article meeting the criteria may be added below using-

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Save it with a link in the edit summary to the article the lead was copied from, for licensing reasons.

Contents

Selected species list[edit]

Agaricus texensis[edit]

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Agaricus texensis, commonly known as the gasteroid agaricus, is a species of fungus in the Agaricaceae family. Found only in southwestern and western North America, it is adapted for growth in dry, semiarid habitats. The fruit bodies are secotioid, meaning the spores are not forcibly discharged, and the cap does not fully expand. Unlike other Agaricus species, A. texensis does not develop true gills, but rather a convoluted and networked system of spore-producing tissue called a gleba. When the partial veil breaks or pulls away from the stem or the cap splits radially, the blackish-brown gleba is exposed to the elements. Formerly named Longula texensis (among several other synonyms), it was shown by molecular analysis in 2004 to be most evolutionarily closely related to Agaricus.

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Amanita abrupta[edit]

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Amanita abrupta, commonly known as the abrupt-bulbed Lepidella, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family of mushrooms. Named for the characteristic shape of its fruit bodies, this white Amanita has a slender stem, a cap covered with conical white warts, and an "abruptly enlarged" swollen base. This terrestrial species grows in mixed woods in eastern North America and eastern Asia, where it is thought to exist in a mycorrhizal relationship with a variety of both coniferous and deciduous tree species.

The fruit bodies of Amanita abrupta are poisonous, and ingestion damages the liver; the toxicity is thought to be largely due to a rare amino acid. Although not considered as toxic as its infamous relatives the death cap and the destroying angel, A. abrupta is blamed for the deaths of two Japanese women in 1978. Poisoning symptoms included the abrupt appearance of violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration after a delay of 10–20 hours.

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Amanita aestivalis[edit]

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Amanita aestivalis, commonly known as the white American star-footed Amanita, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family of mushrooms. The fungus is distributed in the eastern United States, south to Florida, and reaches north into the southeastern provinces of Canada. The cap of the fruit body is medium-sized, 5 to 8.5 cm (2.0 to 3.3 in) in diameter and white. It sits atop a stem that is 8.5 to 16 cm (3.3 to 6.3 in) long and has a rounded bulb its the base. The entire fruit body will slowly stain a reddish-brown color in response to bruising or aging. It remains unknown whether Amanita aestivalis is a distinct species from A. brunnescens, another similar Amanita with a comparable distribution. There are several other white-bodied amanitas with which A. aestivalis may be confused, including A. virosa, A. phalloides, and A. bisporigera.

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Amanita daucipes[edit]

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Amanita daucipes is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family of the Agaricales order of mushrooms. Found exclusively in North America, the mushroom may be recognized in the field by the medium to large white caps with pale orange tints, and the dense covering of pale orange or reddish-brown powdery conical warts on the cap surface. The mushroom also has a characteristic large bulb at the base of its stem with a blunt short rooting base, whose shape is suggestive of the common names carrot-footed Lepidella, carrot-foot Amanita, or turnip-foot Amanita. The mushroom has a strong odor that has been described variously as "sweet and nauseous", or compared to an old ham bone, or soap. Edibility is unknown for the species, but consumption is generally not recommended due its position in the Amanita subgroup Lepidella, which contains some poisonous members.

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Amanita onusta[edit]

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Amanita onusta, commonly known as the loaded Lepidella or the gunpowder Lepidella, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family of mushrooms. It is characterized by its small to medium-sized fruit bodies that have white to pale gray caps crowded with roughly conical, pyramidal, or irregular gray warts. The stem is whitish-gray with woolly or wart-like veil remnants, and at the base is a spindle- or turnip-shaped base that is rooted somewhat deeply in the soil. The species is distributed in eastern North America, from Nova Scotia to Mexico, and may be found growing on the ground in deciduous forests, particularly those with oak, hickory and chestnut. Fruit bodies smell somewhat like bleaching powder, and their edibility is unknown, but possibly toxic.

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Amanita regalis[edit]

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Amanita regalis, commonly known as the royal fly agaric or the king of Sweden Amanita, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. Common in Scandinavian countries, it is also found in eastern and northern Europe. In North America, its distribution is restricted to Alaska. The fruit bodies of the fungus somewhat resemble the fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria), and it was formerly regarded as a variety of this species. A. regalis differs from it in being larger, with a liver-brown cap bearing numerous scabs, and in having a stem which is yellow-ochre at the base, with patches or rings of patches. Chemical analysis has shown that this species contains ibotenic acid and muscimol, the same toxic components found in A. muscaria, but no muscarine or tryptamine derivatives have been found.

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Ascocoryne sarcoides[edit]

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Ascocoryne sarcoides is a species of fungus in the Helotiaceae family. Formerly known as Coryne sarcoides, its taxonomical history has been complicated by the fact that it may adopt both sexual and asexual forms. Colloquially known as jelly drops or the purple jellydisc, this common fungus appears as a gelatinous mass of pinkish or purple-colored discs. Distributed widely in North America, Europe and Asia, A. sarcoides is a saprobic fungus and grows in clusters on the trunks and branches of a variety of dead woods. Field studies suggest that colonization by A. sarcoides of the heartwood of black spruce confers some resistance to further infection by rot-causing fungi. A. sarcoides contains the antibiotic compound ascocorynin, shown in the laboratory to inhibit the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria.

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Astraeus hygrometricus[edit]

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Astraeus hygrometricus, commonly known as the hygroscopic earthstar, the barometer earthstar, or the false earthstar, is a species of fungus in the family Astraeaceae. In maturity, it displays the characteristic earthstar shape that is a result of the outer layer of fruiting body tissue splitting open in a star-like manner. Despite its outward appearance, A. hygrometricus is not related to the genus of true earthstars, Geastrum, although historically, it has been taxonomically confused with them. First described in 1801 as Geastrum hygrometricus by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon, in 1885 Andrew P. Morgan showed that microscopic differences from other Geastrum species were enough to warrant it being moved to the new genus Astraeus. Several Asian species formerly thought to be A. hygrometricus were renamed in the 2000s once phylogenetic analyses revealed they were unique Astraeus species.

It is an ectomycorrhizal species that grows in association with various trees, especially in sandy soils. A. hygrometricus has a cosmopolitan distribution, and is common in temperate and tropical regions. Its common names refer to the fact that it is hygroscopic (water-absorbing), and can open up its rays to expose the spore sac in response to increased humidity, and close them up again in drier conditions.

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Battarrea phalloides[edit]

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Battarrea phalloides is an inedible species of mushroom in the family Tulostomataceae, and the type species of the genus Battarrea. Known in the vernacular as the scaley-stalked puffball or the sandy stiltball, it has a woody, slender, and scaly stem that can typically reach 40 centimeters (15.7 in) in length. Although its general appearance resembles a more typical agaric with stem and gills, atop the stem is a spore sac, consisting of an endoperidium and a gleba. Battarrea phalloides is found in dry, sandy locations throughout North America, primarily in western regions; it has also been collected in South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, and China. There is currently some disagreement in the literature as to whether the European species B. stevensii is the same species as B. phalloides.

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Boletus frostii[edit]

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Boletus frostii, commonly known as Frost's bolete or the apple bolete, is an edible bolete mushroom first described scientifically in 1874. A member of the Boletaceae family, the mushrooms produced by the fungus have tubes and pores instead of gills on the underside of its cap. The fruit bodies may be recognized by their dark red sticky caps, the red pores, the network-like pattern of the stem, and the bluing reaction to bruising. Another characteristic of young, moist fruit bodies are the amber drops exuded on the pore surface. It is a mycorrhizal species, and the fruit bodies are typically found growing near hardwood trees, especially oak. Boletus frostii is distributed in the eastern United States from Maine to Georgia, Mexico, and Costa Rica. A subspecies, Boletus frostii ssp. Floridanus, has been described and differs from the typical species in the color of the fruit body, and texture of the cap.

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Boletus mirabilis[edit]

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Boletus mirabilis, commonly known as the admirable bolete, the bragger's bolete, and the velvet top, is an edible species of fungus in the Boletaceae mushroom family. The fruit body has several characteristics with which it may be identified: a dark reddish-brown cap; yellow to greenish-yellow pores on the undersurface of the cap; and a reddish-brown stem with long narrow reticulations. Boletus mirabilis is found in coniferous forests along the Pacific Coast of North America, and in Asia. Unusual for boletes, B. mirabilis sometimes appears to fruit on the wood or woody debris of Hemlock, suggesting a saprobic lifestyle. Despite occasional appearances to the contrary, Boletus mirabilis is mycorrhizal, and forms close mutualistic associations with hemlock roots. There has been some disagreement in the literature as to whether the mushroom should be placed in the closely-related genera Boletus or Boletellus.

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Boletus pinophilus[edit]

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Boletus pinophilus, commonly known as the pine bolete or pinewood king bolete, is a basidiomycete fungus of the genus Boletus found throughout Europe. The large, edible fruiting bodies known as mushrooms appear under pine trees, generally in summer and autumn. It has a matte brown to maroon-coloured cap and its stem is often large and swollen, and the overall colour may have an orange-red tinge. As with other boletes, the size of the fruiting body is variable. Boletus pinophilus is edible, and may be preserved and cooked.

For many years, Boletus pinophilus was considered a subspecies or form of the porcini mushroom B. edulis. In 2008, B. pinophilus in western North America were reclassified as a new species, Boletus rex-veris.

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Boletus pulcherrimus[edit]

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Boletus pulcherrimus, commonly known as Alice Eastwood's boletus or the red-pored bolete, is a species of mushroom in the Boletaceae family. It is a large bolete from Western North America with distinguishing features that include a finely netted surface on the upper third of the stem, a red to brown cap and stem color, and red pores that stain blue upon injury. Formerly known as B. eastwoodiae, the original specimen was reviewed in 1976 and found to be B. satanas. To date it is the only bolete that has been implicated in the death of someone consuming it; a couple developed gastrointestinal symptoms in 1994 after eating this fungus with the husband succumbing. Autopsy revealed infarction of the midgut.

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Boletus zelleri[edit]

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Boletus zelleri, commonly known as Zeller's Bolete, is an edible species of mushroom in the family Boletaceae. First described scientifically by American mycologist William Alphonso Murrill in 1912, the species has been juggled by various authors to several genera, including Boletus, Boletellus, and Xerocomus. Found solely in western North America from British Columbia south to Mexico, the fruit bodies are distinguished by their dark reddish brown to nearly black caps with uneven surfaces, the yellow pores on the underside of the caps, and the red-streaked yellow stems. The fungus grows in summer and fall on the ground, often in Douglas fir forests or on their margins. The development of the fruit bodies is gymnocarpic, meaning that the hymenium appears and develops to maturity in an exposed state, not enclosed by any protective membrane.

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Calvatia sculpta[edit]

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Calvatia sculpta, commonly known as the sculpted puffball, the sculptured puffball, the pyramid puffball, and the Sierran puffball, is a species of puffball mushroom in the Lycoperdaceae family. Attaining dimensions of up to 8 to 15 cm (3.1 to 5.9 in) tall by 8 to 10 cm (3.1 to 3.9 in) wide, the pear- or egg-shaped puffball is readily recognizable because of the large pyramidal or polygonal warts covering its surface. It is edible when young, before the spores inside the fruit body disintegrate into a brown powder. The spores are roughly spherical, and have wart-like projections on the surface.

Originally described from the Sierra Nevada, C. sculpta is found in mountainous areas in western North America, and was first recorded from a Brazilian dune in 2008. It may be easily confused with Calbovista subsculpta, a similar puffball which—in addition to differences observable only with microscopy—is larger, and has slightly raised felty warts. Other similar species include Calvatia arctica and immature specimens of Amanita magniverrucata.

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Clathrus ruber[edit]

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Clathrus ruber is a species of fungus in the stinkhorn family, and the type species of the genus Clathrus. It is commonly known as the latticed stinkhorn, the basket stinkhorn, or the red cage, alluding to the striking fruit bodies that are shaped somewhat like a round or oval hollow sphere with interlaced or latticed branches. Although considered primarily a European species, Clathrus ruber has a widespread distribution that includes northern Africa, Asia, and Australia. It has been introduced to many areas, such as North America, through human activity.

The fruit body initially appears like a whitish "egg" attached to the ground by long cords. The egg has a delicate, leathery outer membrane enclosing the compressed lattice that surrounds a layer of olive-green spore-bearing slime called the gleba, which contains high levels of calcium that help protect the developing fruit body during development. As the egg ruptures and the fruit body expands, the gleba is carried upward on the inner surfaces of the spongy lattice, and the egg tissue remains as a volva around the base of the structure. The gleba has a fetid odor, somewhat like rotting meat, that attracts flies and other insects to help disperse the spores.

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Coprinopsis atramentaria[edit]

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Coprinopsis atramentaria, commonly known as the common ink cap or inky cap, is an edible (but sometimes poisonous, see below) mushroom found in Europe and North America. Previously known as Coprinus atramentarius, it is the second best known ink cap and previous member of the genus Coprinus after C. comatus. It is a widespread and common fungus, found throughout the northern hemisphere. Clumps of mushrooms arise after rain from spring to autumn, commonly in urban and disturbed habitats such as vacant lots and lawns as well as grassy areas. The grey-brown cap is initially bell-shaped before opening and flattening and disintegrating. The flesh is thin and the taste mild. It can be eaten, but is poisonous when consumed with alcohol – hence another common name, tippler's bane.

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Crinipellis zonata[edit]

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Crinipellis zonata, commonly known as the zoned Crinipellis or the zoned-cap Collybia, is a species of gilled mushroom in the Marasmiaceae family. Though considered a little brown mushroom of unknown edibility, it is distinctive because of its thick covering of coarse hairs, and differentiated from other members of Crinipellis by its slightly larger cap size, which reaches up to 25 mm (1.0 in) in diameter. The white gills on the underside of the cap are crowded closely together, and are free from attachment to the stem. Saprobic, it grows on the dead wood of deciduous trees from late summer to autumn. The fungus is found commonly in eastern North America, but has also been collected in Portugal and Korea. The variety C. zonata var. cremoricolor, found in eastern North America, may be distinguished microscopically by its longer spores.

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Cryptothecia rubrocincta[edit]

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Cryptothecia rubrocincta is a species of lichen in the Arthoniaceae family of fungi. The species is distributed in subtropical and tropical locations throughout the southeastern United States, as well as Central and South America, and has been collected infrequently in a few locales in Africa. The body of the lichen forms continuous, circular crust-like patches on dead wood, readily recognizable by the prominent red pigment. The older, central region is covered with red, spherical to cylindrical granules. Moving outwards from the center, zones of color may be distinguished, the first gray-green, the second white, and finally a bright red cottony rim. The red and green colors of this unmistakable woodland lichen give the appearance of a Christmas wreath, suggestive of its common North American name, the Christmas wreath lichen. The red pigment, called chiodectonic acid, is one of several chemicals the lichen produces to help tolerate inhospitable growing conditions.

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Cyathus helenae[edit]

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Cyathus helenae is a species of fungus in the genus Cyathus, family Nidulariaceae. Like other members of the Nidulariaceae, C. helenae resembles a tiny bird's nest filled with 'eggs'—spore-containing structures known as peridioles. It was initially described by mycologist Harold Brodie in 1965, who found it growing on mountain scree in Alberta, Canada. C. helenae's life cycle allows it to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Being one of the smaller species of Cyathus, C. helenae produces a number of chemically unique diterpenoid molecules known as cyathins. The specific epithet of this species was given by Brodie in tribute to his late wife Helen.

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Cyathus olla[edit]

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Cyathus olla is a species of saprobic fungus in the genus Cyathus, family Nidulariaceae. Specimens resemble tiny bird's nests filled with "eggs" — spore-containing structures called peridioles. Like other bird's nest fungi, C. olla relies on the force of falling water to dislodge peridioles from fruiting bodies to eject and disperse their spores. The life cycle of this fungus allows it to reproduce both sexually, with meiosis, and asexually via spores. C. olla is a relatively common fungus, with a worldwide distribution. It is the subject of agricultural research to determine its potential as a means to accelerate the breakdown of crop residue, and reduce the population of plant pathogens. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word olla, meaning "pot".

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Cyathus stercoreus[edit]

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Cyathus stercoreus, commonly known as the dung-loving bird's nest, is a species of fungus in the genus Cyathus, family Nidulariaceae. Like other species in the Nidulariaceae, the fruiting bodies of C. stercoreus resemble tiny bird's nests filled with eggs. The fruiting bodies are referred to as splash cups, because they are designed to use the force of falling drops of water to dislodge and disperse their spores. The species has a worldwide distribution, and prefers growing on dung, or soil containing dung; the specific epithet is derived from the Latin word stercorarius, meaning "of dung".

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Cyathus striatus[edit]

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Cyathus striatus, commonly known as the fluted bird's nest, is a common saprobic bird's nest fungus with a widespread distribution throughout temperate regions of the world. This fungus resembles a miniature bird's nest with numerous tiny "eggs"; the eggs, or peridioles, are actually lens-shaped bodies that contain spores. C. striatus can be distinguished from most other bird's nest fungi by its hairy exterior and grooved (striated) inner walls. Although most frequently found growing on dead wood in open forests, it also grows on wood chip mulch in urban areas. The fruiting bodies are encountered from summer until early winter. The color and size of this species can vary somewhat, but they are typically less than a centimeter wide and tall, and grey or brown in color. Another common name given to C. striatus, splash cups, alludes to the method of spore dispersal: the sides of the cup are angled such that falling drops of water can dislodge the peridioles and eject them from the cup. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin stria, meaning "with fine ridges or grooves".

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Cyptotrama asprata[edit]

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Cyptotrama asprata (alternatively spelled aspratum), commonly known as the Golden-scruffy Collybia, is a saprobic species of mushroom in the Physalacriaceae family. Widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, it is characterized by the bright orange to yellow cap that in young specimens is covered with tufts of fibrils resembling small spikes. This fungus has had a varied taxonomical history, having been placed in fourteen genera before finally settling in Cyptotrama. This species is differentiated from several other similar members of genus Cyptotrama by variations in cap color, and spore size and shape.

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Entoloma sinuatum[edit]

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Entoloma sinuatum (commonly known as the livid entoloma, livid agaric, livid pinkgill, leaden entoloma, and lead poisoner) is a poisonous mushroom found across Europe and North America. Some guidebooks refer to it by its older scientific names of Entoloma lividum or Rhodophyllus sinuatus. Entoloma is a genus of pink-spored fungi, of which this species is the largest. Occurring in parks or deciduous woodlands in late summer and autumn, it has an ivory to light grey-brown cap up to 20 cm (8 in) across, with a whitish stem and pink free gills.

It may be mistaken for the edible St Georges' mushroom (Calocybe gambosa), or miller (Clitopilus prunulus) and has been responsible for many cases of mushroom poisoning in Europe. E. sinuatum causes primarily gastrointestinal problems that, though not generally life-threatening, have been described as highly unpleasant. It is generally not considered to be lethal, although one source has reported deaths from the consumption of this mushroom.

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Gyromitra infula[edit]

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Gyromitra infula, commonly known as the elfin saddle or the hooded false morel, is a member of the ascomycete mushrooms in the family Helvellaceae. The caps of the fruit bodies of this species develop a characteristic saddle-shape in maturity, and the ends of both saddle lobes are drawn out to sharp tips that project above the level of the fruiting body. It is found in the northern hemisphere, usually in the late summer and autumn, growing on rotting wood or on hard packed ground. G. infula is considered inedible as it contains the toxic compound gyromitrin. Gyromitra fungi are included among the informal category "false morels".

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Geastrum pectinatum[edit]

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Geastrum pectinatum is an inedible species of mushroom belonging to the earthstar family of fungi. Although young specimens are spherical, fruiting body development involves the outer layer of tissue splitting open like a star into 7 to 10 pointed rays that eventually bend back to point downward, revealing a small – 1 to 2.5 cm (0.4 to 1.0 in) broad – spore sac supported by a small stalk. It is commonly known as the beaked earthstar or the beret earthstar, in reference to the shape of the spore sac and its prominent, protruding peristome. Although uncommon, this species has a cosmopolitan distribution, and has been collected in various locations in Europe, North and South America, Asia and Africa. Like several other earthstars, crystals of calcium oxalate are found on G. pectinatum, and are thought to be involved in fruiting body maturation.

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Gomphus clavatus[edit]

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Gomphus clavatus is an edible species of fungus in the genus Gomphus, family Gomphaceae. It is commonly known as pig's ears, alluding to the violet underside and yellowish cap of the fruit bodies. Other common names for this species include clustered chanterelle and violet chanterelle. Typically found in coniferous forests of the northern hemisphere, G. clavatus is mycorrhizal, and is associated with tree species in a variety of coniferous genera, particularly spruces and firs. It may be identified by its orangish-brown to lilac color, its purple, wrinkled hymenium, and the unique shape of its fruit bodies.

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Handkea utriformis[edit]

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Handkea utriformis, synonymous with Lycoperdon utriforme or Calvatia utriformis, is a species of the Lycoperdaceae family of puffballs. A rather large mushroom, it may reach dimensions of up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) broad by 20 centimetres (7.9 in) tall. It is commonly known as the mosaic puffball, a reference to the polygonal-shaped segments the outer surface of the fruiting body develops as it matures. Widespread in northern temperate zones, it is found frequently on pastures and sandy heaths, and is edible when young. H. utriformis has antibiotic activity against a number of bacteria, and can bioaccumulate the trace metals copper and zinc to relatively high concentrations.

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Ramariopsis kunzei[edit]

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Ramariopsis kunzei is an edible species of coral fungi in the Clavariaceae family, and the type species of the genus Ramariopsis. It is commonly known as white coral because of the branched structure of the fruit bodies that resemble marine coral. The fruit bodies are up to 5 cm (2.0 in) tall by 4 cm (1.6 in) wide, with numerous branches originating from a short rudimentary stem. The branches are 1–2 millimeters thick, smooth, and white, sometimes with yellowish tips in age. Ramariopsis kunzei has a widespread distribution, and is found in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.

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Hygrophorus agathosmus[edit]

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Hygrophorus agathosmus, commonly known as the gray almond waxy cap or the almond woodwax, is a species of fungus in the Hygrophoraceae family. It was first described by Elias Magnus Fries in 1815; Fries gave it its current name in 1838. A widespread species, it is distributed in the United States, Europe, Africa, and India, and can be found growing under spruce and pine in mixed forests. The fruit bodies are characterized by a light grayish cap that measures up to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter, waxy gills, a dry stem, and the distinct odor of bitter almonds. An edible but bland-tasting mushroom, extracts of the fruit bodies have been shown in laboratory tests to have antimicrobial activity against various bacteria that are pathogenic to humans.

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Lactarius alnicola[edit]

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Lactarius alnicola, commonly known as the golden milkcap, is a species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. The fruit bodies produced by the fungus are characterized by a sticky, vanilla-colored cap up to 20 cm (7.9 in) wide with a mixture of yellow tones arranged in faint concentric bands. The stem is up to 5 cm (2.0 in) long and has yellow-brown spots. When it is cut or injured, the mushroom oozes a white latex, which has an intensely peppery taste. The acrid taste of the fruit bodies renders them unpalatable. The fungus is found in the western United States and Mexico, where it grows in mycorrhizal associations with various coniferous trees species, such as spruce, pine and fir, and deciduous species such as oak and alder. It has also been collected in India. Two varieties have been named: var. pitkinensis, known from Colorado, and var. pungens, from Michigan.

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Lactarius deceptivus[edit]

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Lactarius deceptivus, commonly known as the deceiving milkcap, is a common species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. It is found throughout eastern North America on the ground in coniferous forests near hemlock or deciduous forests near oak, and in oak-dominated forests of Costa Rica. It produces large mushrooms with funnel-shaped caps reaching up to 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter, on top of hard white stems that may reach 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) long and up to 3 cm (1.2 in) thick. The gills are closely spaced together and yellowish-cream in color. When young, the cap is white in all parts, but the depressed center becomes dull brownish in age and breaks up into scales. The edge of the cap has a roll of cottony tissue that collapses as the cap expands. The surface of the stem—especially near the base—has a velvety texture. The mushroom "bleeds" a milky white acrid latex when it is cut or injured. The fruit bodies are edible, but have a bitter taste that can be removed with cooking. Similar Lactarius species with which L. deceptivus might be confused include L. pipertatus, L. pseudodeceptivus, L. caeruleitinctus, L. arcuatus, L. parvulus, and L. subvellereus.

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Lactarius piperatus[edit]

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Lactarius piperatus, commonly known as the peppery milk-cap is a semi-edible basidiomycete fungus of the genus Lactarius. Despite being edible, it is not recommended due to its poor taste, though can be used as seasoning when dried. The fruiting body is a creamy-white mushroom which is funnel-shaped when mature, with exceptionally crowded gills. It bleeds a whitish peppery-tasting milk when cut. Widely distributed across Europe and eastern North America, Lactarius piperatus has been accidentally introduced to Australia. Mycorrhizal, it forms a symbiotic relationship with various species of deciduous tree, including beech, and hazel, and fruiting bodies are found on the forest floor in deciduous woodland.

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Lactarius repraesentaneus[edit]

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Lactarius repraesentaneus, commonly known as the northern bearded milkcap, the northern milkcap, or the purple-staining milkcap, is a species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. It has a northerly distribution, and is found in temperate regions of North America and Europe, associated with spruce trees. Distinguishing features of its fruit body include the large orange-yellow cap up to 18 cm (7.1 in) wide, cream to pale yellow gills, and a yellow coarsely-pitted stem that is up to 12 cm (4.7 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) thick. Cut fruit bodies ooze a white latex that will stain mushroom tissue lilac to purple. Several chemicals have been isolated and identified from the fruit bodies that can modify the growth of plants, and the mushroom also has antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus. L. repraesentaneus is poisonous, and consumption causes stomach aches.

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Lactarius rufulus[edit]

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Lactarius rufulus, commonly known as the rufous candy cap, is a species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. The fruit bodies have fleshy brownish-red caps up to 10 cm (3.9 in) wide, and closely spaced pinkish-yellow gills. The stem is up to 12 cm (4.7 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) thick and colored similarly to the cap. The species, known only from California, Arizona, and Mexico, grows on the ground in leaf litter near oak trees. The fruit bodies resembles those of L. rufus, but L. rufulus tends to grow in clusters at a common base, rather than solitarily or in groups. A distinguishing microscopic characteristic is the near absence of large, spherical cells called sphaerocysts that are otherwise common in Lactarius species. Lactarius rufulus mushrooms are edible, and have an odor resembling maple syrup. They have been used to flavor confections and desserts.

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Lactarius subdulcis[edit]

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Lactarius subdulcis, commonly known as the mild milkcap or beech milk cap, is an edible mushroom in the genus Lactarius. It is brown in colour, with a large number of gills and a particularly thin layer of flesh in the cap. Mycorrhizal, the mushroom is found from late summer to late autumn at the base of beech trees in small groups or individually, where it is one of the two most common species of fungi. Alternatively, it can be found in large groups in fields, sometimes with more than a hundred individual mushrooms. It is found in Europe, and, despite previous research to the contrary, is absent in North America. Although considered edible, it is not particularly useful as food due to its ivy-like taste and the fact that more choice mushrooms will be easily found at the same time. L. subdulcis is known for its abundant, sweet-tasting milk that, unlike the latex of some of its relatives, does not stain fabric yellow.

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Lactarius subflammeus[edit]

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Lactarius subflammeus, commonly known as the orange milk cap, is a species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. It is found in western North America in the late summer and fall and is especially common in the Pacific Northwest, where it grows on the ground near conifers like pine and spruce. The brightly colored fruit bodies, which are slimy or sticky, have scarlet caps when young that soon fade to brilliant orange. The stem—typically longer than the width of the cap—is also bright orange but the gills are whitish. The mushroom secretes a whitish latex when it is cut or injured.

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Lactarius torminosus[edit]

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Lactarius torminosus, commonly known as the woolly milkcap or the bearded milkcap, is a large basidiomycete fungus in the genus Lactarius. It is found in the United Kingdom, Northern Europe, and is common in North America, where it grows in mixed forests in a mycorrhizal association with various trees, most commonly birch. Although it is valued for its peppery flavor and eaten after pickling in Russia and Finland, it is highly irritating to the digestive system when eaten raw. The toxins responsible for the acrid taste are destroyed by cooking.

The fruit bodies produced by the fungus have caps which can reach up to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. They are pink-flesh colored, with whitish concentric zones. The edge of the cap is rolled inwards, and shaggy when young. On the underside of the caps are flesh-colored gills crowded closely together. It is on these fertile gill surfaces that the spore-bearing cells, the basidia are found. The cylindrical stem is a pale flesh color with a delicately downy surface, reaching lengths of up to 8 cm (3.1 in). When cut or injured, the fruit bodies ooze a white latex that does not change color upon exposure to air. The variety normandensis, in contrast, has latex that changes color from white to yellow.

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Psilocybe semilanceata[edit]

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Psilocybe semilanceata, commonly known as the liberty cap, is a psychedelic mushroom that contains the psychoactive compounds psilocybin and baeocystin. Liberty caps have a distinctive conical to bell-shaped cap, up to 2.5 centimetres (1.0 in) in diameter, with a small nipple-like protrusion on the top. They are yellow to brown in color, covered with radial grooves when moist, and fade to a lighter color as they mature. Their stems tend to be slender and long, and the same color or slightly lighter than the cap. The gill attachment to the stem is adnexed (narrowly attached), and they are initially cream before tinting purple as the spores mature. The spores are dark purplish-brown in mass, ellipsoid, and measure 10.5–15 by 6.5–8.5 micrometers.

The mushroom grows on grassy meadows and similar habitats, particularly in wet, north-facing fields and other habitats well-fertilized by sheep and cattle feces. But unlike P. cubensis and P. coprophila, it does not grow directly on the dung. The species is found in fields where animals graze throughout the cool temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it is known primarily from continental Europe, the UK and Ireland. However, it has also been reported occasionally from India, South America, and Australasia. It is the world's most common psychoactive mushroom, and one of the most potent. The mushroom has also been shown to inhibit an antibiotic-resistant form of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and it may suppress growth of the plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi.

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Leucopaxillus giganteus[edit]

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Leucopaxillus giganteus, commonly known as the giant leucopax (formerly as the giant clitocybe) or the giant funnel, is a saprobic species of fungus in the Tricholomataceae family. As its common names imply, the fruit body, or mushroom, can become quite large—the cap reaches diameters of up to 40 cm (16 in). It has a white or pale cream cap, and is funnel-shaped when mature, with the gills running down the length of the stem. Considered by some to be a choice edible when young, this species has a cosmopolitan distribution, and is typically found growing in groups or rings in grassy pastures, roadside hedges, or woodland clearings. Leucopaxillus giganteus contains a number of bioactive compounds, one of which has displayed antibiotic and anti-tumor properties in laboratory tests.

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Lobaria pulmonaria[edit]

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Lobaria pulmonaria is a large epiphytic lichen consisting of an ascomycete fungus and a green algal partner living together in a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium—a symbiosis involving members of three kingdoms of organisms. Commonly known by various names like tree lungwort, lung lichen, lung moss, lungwort lichen, oak lungs or oak lungwort,[1] it is sensitive to air pollution and is also negatively affected by habitat loss and changes in forestry practices. Its population has declined across Europe and L. pulmonaria is considered endangered in many lowland areas. The species has a history of use in traditional medicines, and recent research has corroborated some medicinal properties of lichen extracts.

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Marasmius rotula[edit]

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Marasmius rotula is a species of fungus in the Marasmiaceae family of mushrooms. It is commonly known variously as the pinwheel mushroom, the pinwheel Marasmius, the little wheel, the collared parachute, or the horse hair fungus. It is a widespread and common fungus, and is the type species of the genus Marasmius. The fruit body is characterized by its whitish, thin, membranous cap, its long and slender but tough black stem, and widely-spaced white gills that are attached to a collar encircling but not touching the stem. The fungus grows on decaying wood and leaves. Unlike other mushrooms known to release spores in response to an internal timer, or circadian rhythm, spore release in M. rotula is dependent on rain.

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Mycena californiensis[edit]

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Mycena californiensis is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. It is a common and abundant species in the coastal oak woodlands of California, where it grows saprobically, feeding on the fallen leaves and acorns of various oak species. First described in 1860 by Berkeley and Curtis, the species was collected four years earlier during an exploring and surveying expedition. It was subsequently considered a doubtful species by later Mycena researchers, until a 1999 publication validated the taxon. Mycena elegantula is considered a synonym.

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Mutinus elegans[edit]

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Mutinus elegans, commonly known as the elegant stinkhorn, the dog stinkhorn, the headless stinkhorn, or the devil's dipstick, is a species of fungus in the Phallaceae family. A saprobic species, it is typically found growing on the ground singly or in small groups on woody debris or leaf litter, during summer and autumn in Europe and eastern North America. The fruit body begins its development in an "egg" form, resembling somewhat a puffball partially submerged in the ground. As the fungus matures, a slender orange to pink colored stalk emerges that tapers evenly to a pointed tip. The stalk is covered with a foul-smelling slimy green spore mass on the upper third of its length. Flies and other insects feed upon the slime which contains the spores, assisting in their dispersal. Due to their repellent odor, mature specimens are not generally considered edible, although there are reports of the immature "eggs" being consumed. In the laboratory, Mutinus elegans has been shown to inhibit the growth of several microorganisms that can be pathogenic to humans.

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Omphalotus nidiformis[edit]

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Omphalotus nidiformis, or ghost fungus, is a gilled basidiomycete mushroom found in southern Australia most notable for its bioluminescent properties. Generally found growing on dead or dying trees, it is saprotroph and parasite.

Its scientific name is derived from the Latin nidus "nest", hence 'nest shaped'. Similar in appearance to the oyster mushroom, it was previously considered a member of the same genus, Pleurotus, and described under the former names Pleurotus nidiformis or Pleurotus lampas. However, it is poisonous and while not lethal, consuming this mushroom leads to severe cramps and vomiting. Poisonings have occurred over confusion with oyster mushrooms. It is one of several species with bioluminescent properties occurring worldwide, all of which are poisonous with the exception of Armillaria.

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Paxillus involutus[edit]

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Paxillus involutus, commonly known as the brown roll-rim or common roll-rim, or poison pax, is a poisonous basidiomycete fungus, previously considered edible and eaten widely in Eastern and Central Europe. It had been recognized as causing gastric upsets when eaten raw, but was more recently implicated in a potentially fatal immune hemolysis in those who had consumed the mushroom without ill-effects for years. It often grows near edible mushrooms as well which makes it harder to identify by amateur mushroomers.

It is widely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere and has been accidentally introduced to Australia, New Zealand, and South America; it is likely to have been transported in soil of European trees to those countries. Various shades of brown in color, the fruiting body resembles a brown wooden top and may be found in deciduous and coniferous woods, and grassy areas in later summer and autumn. The cap bears a distinctive inrolled rim and decurrent gills which may be pore-like close to the stipe. Although it has gills, it is more closely related to the pored boletes than to typical gilled mushrooms.

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Phallus impudicus[edit]

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Phallus impudicus, commonly known as the common stinkhorn, is a widespread fungus recognizable for its foul odor and its phallic shape when mature, the latter feature giving rise to several names in 17th-century England. It is a common mushroom in Europe and western North America, where it occurs in habitats rich in wood debris such as forests and mulched gardens. It appears from summer to late autumn. The fruiting structure is tall and white with a slimy, dark olive colored conical head. Known as the gleba, this material contains the spores, and is transported by insects which are attracted by the odor – described as resembling carrion. Despite its foul smell, it is not poisonous and the young mushroom is consumed in parts of France and Germany.

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Pholiota flammans[edit]

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Pholiota flammans, commonly known as the yellow pholiota, the flaming Pholiota, or the flame scalecap, is a basidiomycete agaric mushroom of the genus Pholiota. Its fruit body is golden-yellow in color throughout, while its cap and stem are covered in sharp scales. As it is a saprobic fungus, the fruit bodies typically appear in clusters on the stumps of dead coniferous trees. P. flammans is distributed throughout Europe, North America, and Asia in boreal and temperate regions. Its edibility has not been clarified.

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Plectania nannfeldtii[edit]

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Plectania nannfeldtii, commonly known as Nannfeldt's Plectania, the black felt cup, or the black snowbank cup fungus, is a species of fungus in the family Sarcosomataceae. The fruit bodies of this species resemble small, black, goblet-shaped shallow cups up to 3 cm (1.2 in) wide, with stems up to 4 cm (1.6 in) long attached to black mycelia. Fruit bodies, which may appear alone or in groups on the ground in conifer duff, are usually attached to buried woody debris, and are commonly associated with melting snow. Plectania nannfeldtii is found in western North America and in Asia, often at higher elevations. Similar black cup fungi with which P. nannfeldtii may be confused include Pseudoplectania vogesiaca, P. nigrella, and Helvella corium.

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Pseudocolus fusiformis[edit]

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Pseudocolus fusiformis is a stinkhorn mushroom in the Phallaceae family, a family well-known for a remarkable range of fruit body types. It is the most widely distributed member of the genus Pseudocolus and has been found in the United States, Australia, Japan, Java, and the Philippines. It is commonly known as the stinky squid, because of its fetid odor, and its three or four upright "arms" which are connected at the top. The malodorous smell comes from the dark greenish slimy gleba covering the inside faces of the arms, and attracts insects that help to disperse the spores.

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Russula virescens[edit]

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Russula virescens is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Russula, and is commonly known as the green-cracking Russula, the quilted green Russula, or the green brittlegill. It can be recognized by its distinctive pale green cap covered with darker green patches, its crowded white gills, and its white stem. A popular edible fungus with a mild or nutty taste, its distribution encompasses Britain, Europe, and Asia, where it occurs solitary or scattered on the ground in both deciduous and mixed forests, forming mycorrhizhal associations with hardwood trees like oak and European beech. Its distribution in North America has not been clarified, due to confusion with the similar species Russula parvovirescens and Russula crustosa. The ribonuclease enzyme of R. virescens has been studied and shown to have a unique biochemistry compared to other edible mushrooms.

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Coprinellus impatiens[edit]

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Coprinellus impatiens is a species of fungus in the Psathyrellaceae family. First described in 1821, it has been classified variously in the genera Psathyrella, Pseudocoprinus, Coprinarius, and Coprinus, before molecular phylogenetics reaffirmed it as a Coprinellus species in 2001. The fungus is found in North America and Europe, where the mushrooms grow on the ground in deciduous forests. The fruit bodies have buff caps that are up to 4 cm (1.6 in) in diameter, held by slender whitish stems that can be up to 10 cm (3.9 in) tall. Several other Coprinopsis species that resemble C. impatiens may be distinguished by differences in appearance, habit, or spore morphology.

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Sarcoscypha occidentalis[edit]

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Sarcoscypha occidentalis, commonly known as the stalked scarlet cup or the western scarlet cup, is a species of fungus in the family Sarcoscyphaceae, order Pezizales. Fruit bodies have small, bright red cups up to 2 cm (0.8 in) wide atop a slender whitish stem that is between 1 to 3 cm (0.4 to 1.2 in) long. A saprobic species, it is found growing on hardwood twigs, particularly those that are partially buried in moist and shaded humus-rich soil. The fungus is distributed in the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, Central America, the Caribbean, and Asia. It is distinguished from the related species S. coccinea and S. austriaca by differences in geographical distribution, fruiting season, and fruit body structure. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that it is most closely related to other Sarcoscypha species that contains large oil droplets in their spores. The species Molliardiomyces occidentalis is an imperfect form of the fungus that lacks a sexually reproductive stage in its life cycle.

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Scutellinia scutellata[edit]

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Scutellinia scutellata, commonly known as the eyelash cup, the Molly eye-winker, the scarlet elf cap, the eyelash fungus or the eyelash pixie cup, is a small saprophytic fungus of the genus Scutellinia. It is the type species of Scutellinia, as well as being the most common and widespread. The fruiting bodies are small red cups with distinct long, dark hairs or "eyelashes". These eyelashes are the most distinctive feature and are easily visible with a magnifying glass. The species is common in North America and Europe, and has been recorded on every continent. S. scutellata is found on rotting wood and in other damp habitats, typically growing in small groups, sometimes forming clusters. It is sometimes described as inedible, but its small size means it is not suitable for culinary use. Despite this, it is popular among mushroom hunters due to its unusual "eyelash" hairs, making it memorable and easy to identify.

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Suillus americanus[edit]

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Suillus americanus is a species of fungus in the Suillaceae family of mushrooms. Commonly known as the chicken fat mushroom, the American slippery Jack (or slipperycap), or the American suillus, it grows in a mycorrhizal association with eastern white pine and can be found where this tree occurs in eastern North America and China. The mushroom can be recognized by the bright yellow cap with red to reddish-brown scales embedded in slime, the large yellow angular pores on the underside of the cap, and the narrow yellow stem marked with dark reddish dots. Molecular phylogenetics analysis suggests that S. americanus may be the same species as S. sibricus, found in western North America and western and central Asia. Suillus americanus is edible, although opinions vary as to its palatability; some susceptible individuals may suffer a contact dermatitis after touching the fruit bodies. The fruit bodies contain a beta glucan carbohydrate shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in laboratory tests.

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Coprinopsis variegata[edit]

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Coprinopsis variegata, commonly known as the scaly ink cap or the feltscale inky cap, is a species of fungus in the family Psathyrellaceae. Distributed in eastern North America, it has a medium-sized, bell-shaped to flattened cap up to 7.5 cm (3.0 in) in diameter, with felt-like, patchy scales. The gills, initially white, turn black in maturity and eventually dissolve into a black "ink". Fruit bodies grow in clusters or groups on leaf litter or rotted hardwood, although the wood may be buried, giving the appearance of growing in the soil. The fungus is found in the United States, in areas east of the Great Plains. Coprinus ebulbosus and Coprinus quadrifidus are names assigned by Charles Horton Peck to what he believed were species distinct from C. variegata; they were later shown to represent the same species, and are now synonyms. The mushroom is not recommended for consumption, and has been shown to cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals.

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Suillus sibiricus[edit]

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Suillus sibiricus is a fungus of the genus Suillus in the Suillaceae family. It is found in mountains of Europe, North America and Siberia, strictly associated with several species of pine tree. Due to its specific habitat and rarity in Europe, it has been selected for inclusion in several regional Red Lists. Its fruit bodies are characterised by having slimy caps in wet weather, which can reach diameters of up to 10 cm (3.9 in). On the underside of the cap are yellow angular pores that bruise a pinkish to cinnamon colour. The stem is up to 8 cm (3.1 in) tall and 2.5 cm (1.0 in) wide and typically has a ring, a remnant of the partial veil that covers the fruit body in its early development. In North America, it is commonly called the Siberian slippery jack. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that S. sibiricus is closely related to S. umbonatus and S. americanus, and may in fact be conspecific with the latter species.

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Collybia tuberosa[edit]

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Collybia tuberosa, commonly known as the lentil shanklet or the appleseed coincap, is an inedible species of fungus in the Tricholomataceae family, and the type species of the genus Collybia. Like the two other members of its genus, it lives on the decomposing remains of other fleshy mushrooms. The fungus produces small whitish fruit bodies with caps up to 1 cm (0.4 in) wide held by thin stems up to 5 cm (2.0 in) long. On the underside of the cap are closely spaced white gills that are broadly attached to the stem. At the base of the stem, embedded in the substrate is a small reddish-brown sclerotium that somewhat resembles an apple seed. The appearance of the sclerotium distinguishes it from the other two species of Collybia, which are otherwise very similar in overall appearance. C. tuberosa is found in Europe, North America, and Japan, growing in dense clusters on species of Lactarius and Russula, boletes, hydnums, and polypores.

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Tremella mesenterica[edit]

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Tremella mesenterica (common names include the yellow brain, the golden jelly fungus, the yellow trembler, and witches' butter[2]) is a common jelly fungus in the Tremellaceae family of the Agaricomycotina. It is most frequently found on dead but attached and on recently fallen branches, especially of angiosperms, as a parasite of wood decay fungi in the genus Peniophora. The gelatinous, orange-yellow fruit body of the fungus, which can grow up to 7.5 cm (3.0 in) diameter, has a convoluted or lobed surface that is greasy or slimy when damp. It grows in crevices in bark, appearing during rainy weather. Within a few days after rain it dries into a thin film or shriveled mass capable of reviving after subsequent rain. This fungus occurs widely in broadleaf and mixed forests and is widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions that include Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America. Although considered bland and flavorless, the fungus is edible. Tremella mesenterica produces carbohydrates that are attracting research interest because of their various biological activities.

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Tricholoma pardinum[edit]

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Tricholoma pardinum, commonly known as spotted tricholoma, tiger tricholoma, tigertop or dirty trich, is a gilled mushroom widely distributed across North America and Europe, as well as parts of Asia. It is generally found in beech woodland in summer and autumn. It is an imposing mushroom with a pale grey cap up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter with darker brownish or greyish scales, white gills and white or pale grey-brown ringless stalk. It is one of the more poisonous members of the genus Tricholoma and has been implicated in a number of episodes of mushroom poisoning, probably because it is a large, attractive mushroom with a superficial resemblance to a number of edible species as well as having a pleasant smell and taste. Ingesting T. pardinum even in small quantities causes a severe, persistent gastroenteritis due to the presence of an as yet unknown mycotoxin.

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Tylopilus plumbeoviolaceus[edit]

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Tylopilus plumbeoviolaceus (formerly Boletus plumbeoviolaceus), commonly known as the violet-grey bolete, is a fungus of the bolete family. First described in 1936, the mushroom has a disjunct distribution, and is distributed in eastern North America and Korea. The fruit bodies of the fungus are violet when young, but fade into a chocolate brown color when mature. They are solid and relatively large—cap diameter up to 15 cm (5.9 in), with a white pore surface that later turns pink, and a white mycelium at the base of the stem. Like most boletes of genus Tylopilus, the mushroom is inedible due to its bitter taste. A number of natural products have been identified from the fruit bodies, including unique chemical derivatives of ergosterol, a fungal sterol.

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Urnula craterium[edit]

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Urnula craterium is a species of cup fungus in the family Sarcosomataceae. It is parasitic on oak and various other hardwood species; it is also saprobic, as the fruiting bodies develop on dead wood after it has fallen to the ground. Appearing in early spring, its distinctive goblet-shaped and dark-colored fruiting bodies have earned it the common names devil's urn and the gray urn. The distribution of U. craterium includes eastern North America, Europe, and Asia. It produces bioactive compounds that can inhibit the growth of other fungi. The asexual (imperfect), or conidial stage of U. craterium is the plant pathogenic species Conoplea globosa, known to cause a canker disease of oak and several other hardwood tree species.

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Verpa bohemica[edit]

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Verpa bohemica is a saprobic species of fungus in the family Morchellaceae. Commonly known as the early morel (or early false morel) or the wrinkled thimble-cap, V. bohemica is one of several species known informally as a "false morel". It can be recognized in the field by the pale yellow or brown thimble-shaped wrinkled cap attached to the top of the lighter-colored stem; its distinguishing characteristic is its relatively large spores, typically 60–80 by 15–18 µm. Although widely consumed, edibility is generally not advised due to reports of poisoning in susceptible individuals. The synonym Ptychoverpa bohemica is often used by European mycologists.

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Wynnea americana[edit]

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Wynnea americana, commonly known as moose antlers or rabbit ears, is a species of fungus in the Sarcoscyphaceae family. This uncommon inedible species is recognizable by its spoon-shaped or rabbit-ear shaped fruit bodies that may reach up to 13 cm (5.1 in) tall. It has dark brown and warty outer surfaces, while the fertile spore-bearing inner surface is orange to pinkish to reddish-brown. The fruit bodies grow clustered together from large underground masses of compacted mycelia known as sclerotia. In eastern North America, where it is typically found growing in the soil underneath hardwood trees, it is found from New York to Michigan south to Mexico. The species has also been collected from Costa Rica, India, and Japan.

Wynnea americana is distinguished from other species in the genus Wynnea by the pustules (small bumps) on the outer surface, and microscopically by the large asymmetrical longitudinally ribbed spores with a sharply pointed tip. The spores are made in structures called asci, which have thickened rings at one end that are capped by a hinged structure known as the operculum—a lid that is opened when spores are to be released from the ascus.

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Hygrophorus eburneus[edit]

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Hygrophorus eburneus, commonly known as the ivory waxy cap or the cowboy's handkerchief, is a species of edible mushroom in the waxgill family of fungi. It is widespread in Europe and North America, and has also been collected in northern Africa. The fruit bodies are medium-sized, pure white, and when wet are covered in a layer of slime thick enough to make the mushroom difficult to pick up. The gills are broadly attached to the stem or running down it; as the family name suggests, they feel waxy when rubbed between the fingers. Like all Hygrophorus species, the fungus is mycorrzhizal—a symbiotic association whereby the underground fungal mycelia penetrate and exchange nutrients with tree roots. They are common in a variety of forest types, where they grow on the ground in thickets or grassy areas. Hygrophorus eburneus is the type species of the genus Hygrophorus. A number of biologically active chemicals have been purified from the fruit bodies of the fungus, including fatty acids with bactericidal and fungicidal activity.

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Sarcoscypha dudleyi[edit]

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Sarcoscypha dudleyi, commonly known as the crimson cup or the scarlet cup, is a species of fungus in the Sarcoscyphaceae family of the Pezizales order. In addition to its main distribution in the central to eastern United States, the fungus has also been recorded once in Bulgaria. It has been frequently confused with Sarcoscypha coccinea, but can be distinguished from this and other related species in Sarcoscypha by differences in microscopic characteristics, such as the presence and number of oil droplets in the spores. The species Molliardiomyces dudleyi is an imperfect form of the fungus that lacks a sexually reproductive stage in its life cycle.

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Lactarius fallax[edit]

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Lactarius fallax, commonly known as the velvety milk cap, is a species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. Found in both spruce and mixed conifer forests, it is a fairly common species in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, with a northerly range extending to Alaska. Its fruit bodies are medium-sized, with velvety, brown to blackish caps up to 3–9 cm (1.2–3.5 in) in diameter bearing a distinct pointed umbo. The caps are supported by velvety stems up to 6 cm (2.4 in) long and 1.5 cm (0.6 in) thick. The mushroom oozes a whitish latex when it is cut, and injured tissue eventually turns a dull reddish color. The eastern North American and European species Lactarius lignyotus is closely similar in appearance, but can be distinguished by its differing range.

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Lactarius blennius[edit]

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Lactarius blennius (commonly known as the Slimy Milkcap or Beech Milkcap) is a medium-sized mushroom of the genus Lactarius found commonly in beech forests in Europe, where it is mycorrhizal, favouring the European Beech (though associations with other trees are known). It was first described by Elias Magnus Fries. Though its colour and size vary, it is distinctive because it is slimy when wet and exudes copious amounts of milk. It has been the subject of some chemical research, and it can be used to produce pigments and blennins. Blennins, some of which have shown potential medical application, are derived from lactarane, a chemical so named because of their association with Lactarius. The edibility of L. blennius is uncertain, with different mycologists suggesting that it is edible (though not recommended), inedible or even poisonous.

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Amanita atkinsoniana[edit]

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Amanita atkinsoniana is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. It is found in the northeastern, southeastern, and southern United States as well as southern Canada, where it grows solitarily or in small groups on the ground in mixed woods. The fruit body is white to brownish, with caps that measure up to 12.5 cm (4.9 in) in diameter, and stems up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 2.5 cm (1.0 in) thick. The surface of the cap is covered with reddish-brown to grayish-brown conical warts. The stem, which can reach up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long, has a bulbous base covered with grayish-brown scales. The fruit bodies smell faintly like bleaching powder. Although not known to be poisonous, the mushroom is not recommended for consumption.

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Ramaria botrytis[edit]

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Ramaria botrytis, commonly known as the caulilower coral, the pink-tipped coral mushroom, or the clustered coral, is an edible species of coral fungus in the Gomphaceae family. Its fruit body, which can grow up to 12 cm (4.7 in) in diameter and 12 cm (4.7 in) tall, resembles a marine coral, and it is identifiable by its white-colored branches with numerous red to orange branched tips. It has a wide distribution, and is found in North America, North Africa, central and eastern Europe, Australia, and Asia, where it fruits on the ground in wooded areas. It is the type species of the genus Ramaria. The fruit bodies are generally considered edible, although they may have laxative effects in susceptible individuals. Scientific research has shown that the mushroom contains several bioactive compounds.

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Amanita ravenelii[edit]

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Amanita ravenelii, commonly known as the pinecone Lepidella, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. The fruit bodies are medium to large, with caps up to 17 cm (6.7 in) wide, and a stem up to 25 cm (9.8 in) long and 3 cm (1.2 in) thick. The warts on the whitish cap surface are large—up to 6 mm (0.24 in) wide and 4 mm (0.16 in) high. The stem has a large bulb at its base, covered with whitish to brownish scales, that may root several centimeters into the soil. The ring on the stem is thick and cotton- or felt-like. It is widely distributed in mixed and deciduous forests of the southeastern United States, where it grows solitarily or in groups on the ground in late summer and autumn. The mushrooms, which have an odor resembling bleaching powder, are not recommended for consumption.

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Strobilomyces foveatus[edit]

Strobilomyces foveatus is a little-known species of fungus in the Boletaceae family. It was first reported by mycologist E.J.H. Corner in 1972, from specimens he collected in Malaysia in 1959, and has since been found in Australia. Fruit bodies are characterized by the small dark brown to black conical scales covering the cap, and the net-like pattern of ridges on the upper stem. The roughly spherical spores measure about eight micrometres, and are densely covered with slender conical spines. The edibility of this species is unknown.

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Mycena flavoalba[edit]

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Mycena flavoalba, commonly known as the ivory bonnet, is a species of inedible mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. The cap is initially conical in shape, before becoming convex and then flattening out; it may reach dimensions of up to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) across. The cap color is ivory-white to yellowish white, sometimes more yellowish at the center. The tubular stems are up to 8 cm (3.1 in) long and 2.5 mm (0.10 in) thick, and have long, coarse white hairs at their bases. The mushroom is found in Europe, the Middle East, and North America, where it grows scattered or in dense groups under conifers and on humus in oak woods.

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Inocybe maculata[edit]

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Inocybe maculata, commonly known as the frosty fibrecap, is a species of mushroom in the Inocybaceae family. First described by Jean Louis Émile Boudier in 1885, I. maculata can be found throughout Europe, Asia and North America. It is a medium-sized brown mushroom with a fibrous, brown cap with white remnants of a universal veil in the middle. The stem is cream or brown. The species is ectomycorrhizal and grows at the base of various trees, including beech. Inocybe maculata is poisonous, containing muscarine. Possible symptoms after consumption of I. maculata mushrooms are salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, gastrointestinal problems and vomiting, with the possibility of death due respiratory failure.

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Mycena acicula[edit]

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Mycena acicula, commonly known as the orange bonnet, or the coral spring Mycena, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. It is found in Asia, the Caribbean, North America and Europe. The fruit bodies, or mushrooms, of the fungus grow on dead twigs and other woody debris of forest floors, especially along streams and other wet places. They have small orange-red caps, up to 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter, held by slender yellowish stems up to 6 cm (2.4 in) long. The gills are pale yellow with a whitish edge. Several other Mycena species look similar, but may be distinguished by differences in size and/or microscopic characteristics. M. acicula is considered inedible because of its small size.

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Auricularia auricula-judae[edit]

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Auricularia auricula-judae, known as the Jew's Ear, Jelly Ear or by a number of other common names, is a species of edible Auriculariales mushroom found worldwide. Distinguished by its noticeably ear-like shape and brown colouration, it grows upon wood, especially elder. Its specific name is derived from the belief that Judas Iscariot hung himself from an elder tree; the common name "Judas's Ear" eventually became "Jew's Ear", while today "Jelly Ear" or other names are sometimes used. The mushroom can be found throughout the year in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, where it grows upon both dead and living wood. Although it is not regarded as a choice edible mushroom in the west, it has long been popular in China, to the extent that Australia exported large volumes of the mushroom to China in the early twentieth century.

While not widely consumed in the west, A. auricula-judae was used in folk medicine as recently as the 19th century, for complaints including sore throats, sore eyes and jaundice, and as an astringent. Today, the mushroom is still used for medicinal purposes in China, where soups featuring it are used as a remedy for colds; it is also used in Ghana, as a blood tonic. Modern research into possible medical applications have variously concluded that A. auricula-judae has antitumour, hypoglycemic, anticoagulant and cholesterol-lowering properties.

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Mycena polygramma[edit]

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Mycena polygramma, commonly known as the grooved bonnet, is a species of mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. The inedible fruit bodies are small, pale gray-brown mushrooms with broadly conical caps, pinkish gills. They are found in small troops on stumps and branches of deciduous and occasionally coniferous trees. The mushroom is found in Asia, Europe, and North America, where it is typically found on twigs or buried wood, carrying out its role in the forest ecosystem by decomposing organic matter, recycling nutrients, and forming humus in the soil. M. polygramma contains two uncommon hydroxy fatty acids and is also a bioluminescent fungus whose intensity of light emission follows a diurnal pattern.

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Mycena adonis[edit]

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Mycena adonis, commonly known as the scarlet bonnet, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. Found in Asia, Europe, and North America, it produces small orangish to reddish inedible mushrooms with caps up to 1.2 cm (0.5 in) in diameter, held by thin pinkish-white stems reaching 4 cm (1.6 in) long. The fungus prefers to grow in conifer woods and peat bogs, suggesting a preference for acidic environments. The appearance of several atypical fruitings of Mycena adonis on deciduous wood in the Netherlands in the late 1970s was attributed to increases in atmospheric pollution that raised the acidity of the wood substrate. Mushrooms resembling M. adonis include M. acicula, M. aurantiidisca, and M. rosella.

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Mycena sanguinolenta[edit]

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Mycena sanguinolenta, commonly known as the bleeding bonnet, the smaller bleeding Mycena, or the terrestrial bleeding Mycena, is a species of mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. It is a commonn and widely distributed species, and has been found in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. The fungus produces reddish-brown to reddish-purple fruit bodies with conic to bell-shaped caps up to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) wide held by slender stems up to 6 cm (2.4 in) high. When fresh, the fruit bodies will "bleed" a dark reddish-purple sap. The similar Mycena haematopus is larger, and grows on decaying wood, usually in clumps. M. sanguinolenta contains alkaloid pigments that are unique to the species, may produce an antifungal compound, and is bioluminescent. The edibility of the mushroom has not been determined.

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Lactarius vinaceorufescens[edit]

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Lactarius vinaceorufescens, commonly known as the yellow-staining milkcap or the yellow-latex milky, is a poisonous species of fungus in the Russulaceae family. It produces mushrooms with pinkish-cinnamon caps up to 12 cm (4.7 in) wide held by pinkish-white stems up to 7 cm (2.8 in) long. The closely-spaced whitish to pinkish buff gills develop wine-red spots in age. When it is cut or injured, the mushroom oozes a white latex that rapidly turns bright sulfur-yellow. The species, common and widely distributed in North America, grows in the ground in association with conifer trees. There are several other Lactarius species that bear resemblance to L. vinaceorufescens, but most can be distinguished by differences in staining reactions, macroscopic characteristics, or habitat.

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Mycena vitilis[edit]

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Mycena vitilis, commonly known as the snapping bonnet, is a species of inedible mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. It is found in Europe and North America, where it grows on the ground among leaves in damp places, especially under alder. The small pale gray to whitish fruit bodies are usually attached to small sticks buried in the leaves and detritus. They are distinguished by their long, slender stems that root into the ground, and by the grooved cap that reaches diameters of up to 2.2 cm (0.9 in). The grayish-white gills on the underside of the cap are distantly spaced, and adnately attached to the stem. M. vitilis contains Strobilurin B, a fungicidal compound with potential use in agriculture.

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Mycena cinerella[edit]

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Mycena cinerella, commonly known as the mealy bonnet, is an inedible species of mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. It is found in Europe and the United States, where it grows in groups on fallen leaves and needles under pine and Douglas fir. The small grayish mushrooms have caps that are up to 1.5 cm (0.6 in) wide atop stems that are 5 cm (2.0 in) long and 2.5 mm (0.10 in) thick. Its gills are grayish-white and adnate, with a "tooth" that runs slightly down the stem. The fungus has both two- and four-spored basidia. As its common name suggests, it smells mealy.

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Mycena inclinata[edit]

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Mycena inclinata, commonly known as the clustered bonnet, is a species of mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. The doubtfully edible mushroom has a reddish-brown bell-shaped cap up to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in diameter. The thin stem is up to 9 cm (3.5 in) tall, whitish to yellow-brown at the top but progressively becoming reddish-brown towards the base in maturity, where they are covered by a yellowish mycelium that can be up to a third of the length of the stem. The gills are pale brown to pinkish, and the spore print is white. It is a widespread saprobic fungus, and has been found in Europe, North Africa, Asia, Australasia, and North America, where it grows in small groups or tufts on fallen logs and stumps, especially of oak. British mycologist E.J.H. Corner has described two varieties of the mushroom from Borneo. Lookalike species with which M. inclinata may be confused include M. galericulata and M. maculata.

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Mycena leptocephala[edit]

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Mycena leptocephala, commonly known as the nitrous bonnet, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. The mushrooms have conical grayish caps that reach up to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, and thin fragile stems up to 5 cm (2.0 in) long. The gills are gray and distantly spaced. The spores are elliptical, typically measure 7–10 by 4–6 μm, and are white in deposit. When viewed under a light microscope, the gills has abundant spindle-shaped cystidia on the gill edges, but few on the gill faces. The mushroom is found in North America and Asia, where it grows singly or in groups on conifer needles, cones and sticks on the forest floor. It has a distinctive odor of bleach; the edibility is unknown. Similar species include Mycena alcalina, M. austera, and M. brevipes.

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Boletellus ananas[edit]

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Boletellus ananas, commonly known as the pineapple bolete, is a mushroom in the Boletaceae family, and the type species of the genus Boletellus. It is distributed in southeastern North America, northeastern South America, Asia, and New Zealand, where it grows scattered or in groups on the ground, often at the base of oak and pine trees. The fruit body is characterized by the reddish-pink (or pinkish-tan to yellowish if an older specimen) scales on the cap that are often found hanging from the edge. The pore surface on the underside of the cap is made of irregular or angular pores up to 2 mm wide that bruise a blue color. It is yellow when young but ages to a deep olive-brown color. Microscopically, B. ananas is distinguished by large spores with cross striae on the ridges and spirally encrusted hyphae in the marginal appendiculae and flesh of the stem. Previously known as Boletus ananas and Boletus coccinea (among other synonyms), the species was given its current name by William Alphonso Murrill in 1909. Two varieties of Boletellus ananas have been described. Although the mushroom may be considered edible, it is not recommended for consumption.

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Mycena stylobates[edit]

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Mycena stylobates, commonly known as the bulbous bonnet, is a species of inedible mushroom in the Mycenaceae family. Found in North America and Europe, it produces small whitish to gray fruit bodies with bell-shaped caps that are up to 15 mm (0.6 in) in diameter. The distinguishing characteristic of the mushroom is the fragile stem, which is seated on a flat disk marked with distinct grooves, and fringed with a row of bristles. The mushrooms grow in small troops on leaves and other debris of deciduous and coniferous trees. The mushroom's spores are white in deposit, smooth, and ellipsoid-shaped with dimensions of 6–10 by 3.5–4.5 μm. In the development of the fruit body, the preliminary stem and cap structures appear at the same time within the primordium, and hyphae originating from the stem form a cover over the developing structures. The mycelia of the mushroom is believed to have bioluminescent properties.

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Clavaria fragilis[edit]

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Clavaria fragilis, commonly known as fairy fingers, white worm coral, or white spindles, is a species of fungus in the family Clavariaceae. It is synonymous with Clavaria vermicularis. The fungus is the type species of the genus Clavaria and is a typical member of the clavarioid, or club fungi. It produces tubular, unbranched, white basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that typically grow in clusters. The fruit bodies can reach dimensions of 15 cm (5.9 in) tall by 0.5 cm (0.2 in) thick. Clavaria fragilis is a saprobic species, growing in woodland litter or in old, unimproved grassland. It is widespread throughout temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere, but has also been reported from Australia and South Africa. The fungus is edible, but insubstantial and flavorless. There are several other small white coral-like fungi with which C. fragilis may be confused.

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Helvella acetabulum[edit]

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Helvella acetabulum is a species of fungi in the Helvellaceae family, Pezizales order. This relatively large cup-shaped fungus is characterized by a tan fruit body with prominent branching ribs resembling a cabbage leaf; for this reason it is commonly known as the cabbage leaf Helvella. Other colloquial names include the vinegar cup and the brown ribbed elfin cup. The fruit bodies reaches dimensions of 8 cm (3.1 in) by 4 cm (1.6 in) tall. It is found in Asia, Europe, and North America, where it grows in sandy soils, under both coniferous and deciduous trees. Although it may be considered edible, the fungus is not recommended for consumption unless cooked thoroughly, as it contains the toxin gyromitrin.

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Pholiota squarrosa[edit]

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Pholiota squarrosa, commonly known as the shaggy scalycap, the shaggy Pholiota, or the scaly Pholiota, is a species of mushroom in the Strophariaceae family. Common in North America and Europe, it is often an opportunistic parasite, and has a wide range of hosts among deciduous trees, although it can also infect conifers. It can also live as a saprobe, deriving nutrients from decomposing wood. The mushroom is typically found growing in clusters at the base of trees and stumps. Both the cap and the stem are covered in small, pointed scales that are pointed downward and backward. The crowded gills are yellowish, then later rust-brown. The mushroom has an odor that, depending on the author, has been described as resembling garlic, lemon, radish, onion, or skunk. It has a strong taste, resembling radishes. Once thought to be edible, it is now considered and known to be poisonous, especially if consumed in combination with alcohol. The mushroom contains unique chemicals thought to help it infect plants by neutralizing defensive responses employed by them. The very similar P. squarrosoides differs in having a paler cap that is sticky between the scales, and smaller spores.

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Pseudoplectania nigrella[edit]

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Pseudoplectania nigrella, commonly known as the ebony cup, the black false plectania, or the hairy black cup, is a species of fungi in the family Sarcosomataceae. The fruit bodies of this saprobic fungus are small blackish cups, typically up to 2 cm (0.8 in) broad, that grow in groups on soil, often amongst pine needles and short grass near coniferous trees. Pseudoplectania nigrella has a worldwide distribution, and has been found in North America, the Caribbean, Britain, Europe, India, Madagascar, New Zealand, and Japan. The fungus produces a unique chemical compound, plectasin, that has attracted research interest for its ability to inhibit the growth of the common human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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Albatrellus subrubescens[edit]

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Albatrellus subrubescens is a terrestrial polypore fungus. The fruit bodies of the fungus have whitish to pale buff-colored caps that can reach up to 14.5 cm (5.7 in) in diameter, and stems up to 7 cm (2.8 in) long and 2 cm (0.8 in) thick. On the underside of the caps are light yellow to pale greenish yellow tiny pores, the site of spore production. When the fruit bodies are fresh, the cap and pores stain yellow where exposed, handled, or bruised. The mushroom is found in North America, Europe and China, where it grows on the ground in deciduous or mixed woods, usually in association with pine trees. It is closely related, and physically similar, to the more common Albatrellus ovinus, from which it may be distinguished macroscopically by differences in bruising colors, and microscopically by the amyloid (staining bluish-black to black with Melzer's reagent) walls of the spores. The fruit bodies contain a chemical named scutigeral that has antibiotic and pharmacological activity. The fungus is inedible.

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Mycena galopus[edit]

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Mycena galopus, commonly known as the milking bonnet or the milk-drop Mycena, is an inedible species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family of the Agaricales order. It produces small mushrooms that have grayish-brown, bell-shaped, radially-grooved caps up to 2.5 cm (1.0 in) wide. The gills are whitish to gray, widely spaced, and squarely attached to the stem. The slender stems are up to 8 cm (3.1 in) long, and pale gray at the top, becoming almost black at the hairy base. The stem will ooze a whitish latex if it is injured or broken. The variety nigra has a dark gray cap, while the variety candida is white. All varieties of the mushroom occur during summer and autumn on leaf litter in coniferous and deciduous woodland.

Mycena galopus is found in North America and Europe. The saprobic fungus is an important leaf litter decomposer, and able to utilize all the major constituents of plant litter. It is especially adept at attacking cellulose and lignin, the latter of which is the second most abundant renewable organic compound in the biosphere. The mushroom latex contains chemicals called benzoxepines, which are thought to play a role in a wound-activated chemical defense mechanism against yeasts and parasitic fungi.

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Mycena maculata[edit]

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Mycena maculata, commonly known as the reddish-spotted Mycena, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. The fruit bodies, or mushrooms, have conic to bell-shaped to convex caps that are initially dark brown but fade to brownish-gray when young, reaching diameters of up to 4 cm (1.6 in). They are typically wrinkled or somewhat grooved, and have reddish-brown spots in age, or after being cut or bruised. The whitish to pale gray gills also become spotted reddish-brown as they mature. The stem, up to 8 cm (3.1 in) long and covered with whitish hairs at its base, can also develop reddish stains. The mycelium of M. maculata has bioluminescent properties. The saprobic fungus in found in Europe and North America, where it grows in groups or clusters on the rotting wood of both hardwoods and conifers. The edibility of the fungus is unknown. Although the species is known for, and named after its propensity to stain reddish, occasionally these stains do not appear, making it virtually indistinguishable from M. galericulata.

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Phallus hadriani[edit]

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Phallus hadriani, commonly known as the dune stinkhorn, is a species of fungus in the Phallaceae (stinkhorn) family. It is a widely distributed species, and is native to Asia, Europe, and North America. In Australia, it is probably an introduced species. The stalk of the fruit body reaches up to 18 cm (7.1 in) tall by 4 cm (1.6 in) thick, and is spongy, fragile, and hollow. At the top of the stem is a ridged and pitted, thimble-like cap over which is spread olive-colored spore slime (gleba). Shortly after emerging, the gleba liquifies and releases a fetid odor that attracts insects, which help disperse the spores. Said to be edible in its immature egg-like stage, it typically grows in public lawns, yards and gardens, usually in sandy soils. Phallus hadriani may be distinguished from the similar P. impudicus (the common stinkhorn) by the presence of a pink or violet-colored volva at the base of the stem, and by differences in odor.

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Lysurus mokusin[edit]

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Lysurus mokusin, commonly known as the lantern stinkhorn, the small lizard's claw, or the ribbed lizard claw, is a saprobic species of fungus in the family Phallaceae. The fruit body consists of a reddish, cylindrical fluted stipe that is capped with several "arms". The arms can approach or even close in on each other to form a spire. The gleba—an olive-green slimy spore mass—is carried on the outer surface of the arms. The fruit body, which has an odor comparable to "fresh dog feces", "rotting flesh", or "sewage" when mature, is edible in its immature "egg" stage. The fungus is native to Asia, and is also found in Australia, Europe and North America, where it is probably an introduced species. It has been used medicinally in China as an ulcer remedy.

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Inocybe praetervisa[edit]

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Inocybe praetervisa is a small, yellow and brown mushroom in the Inocybaceae family, distinguished from other members of the genus by its unusual spores and bulb. The unusual spores led to the species being named the type species of the now-abandoned genus Astrosporina; recent studies have shown that such a genus could not exist, as the species with the defining traits do not form a monophyletic group. However, it is a part of several clades within the genus Inocybe. I. praetervisa grows on the ground in woodland, favouring beech trees, and can be found in Europe, North America and Asia. It is inedible and probably poisonous due to the presence of muscarine. The ingestion of muscarine can lead to SLUDGE syndrome, and could potentially lead to death due to respiratory failure.

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Clathrus columnatus[edit]

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Clathrus columnatus, commonly known as the column stinkhorn, is a saprobic species of basidiomycete fungus in the family Phallaceae. It has a widespread distribution, and has been found in Africa, Australasia, and the Americas. It may have been introduced to North America with exotic plants. Similar to other stinkhorn fungi, the fruiting body, known as the receptaculum, starts out as a subterranean "egg" form. As the fungus develops, the receptaculum expands and erupts out of the protective volva, ultimately developing into mature structures characterized by two to five long vertical orange or red spongy columns, joined together at the apex. The fully grown receptaculum reaches heights of 8 cm (3.1 in) tall. The inside surfaces of the columns are covered with a fetid olive-brown spore-containing slime, which attracts flies and other insects that help disseminate the spores. Although once considered undesirable, the fungus is listed as edible. It is found commonly in mulch.

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Amanita rubrovolvata[edit]

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Amanita rubrovolvata, commonly known as the red volva Amanita, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. First described scientifically by the Japanese mycologist S. Imai in 1939, it is widely distributed in eastern Asia. The fungus produces small- to medium-sized mushrooms, with reddish-orange caps up to 6.5 mm (0.26 in) wide. The stems are up to 100 mm (3.9 in) tall, cream above the ring and cream to yellowish below it. The stem ends in a roughly spherical bulb at the base, which is covered with bright orange patches. Neither edibility nor toxicity have been established for the fungus, but it is suspected to be associated with neurological anomalies. Several molecular studies have confirmed the mushroom's classification in the subgenus Amanita of the genus Amanita, along with closely related species such as A. muscaria.

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Phallus indusiatus[edit]

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Phallus indusiatus, commonly called in English the bamboo fungus, bamboo pith, long net stinkhorn, crinoline stinkhorn or veiled lady, is a stinkhorn fungus in the Phallaceae family. It has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical areas, and has been collected in Asia, the Americas, and Africa. The fungus is characterised by a conical to bell-shaped cap on a stipe and a lacy "skirt" that hangs from beneath the cap. Mature fruit bodies are up to 30 cm (12 in) tall with a cap that is 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) long. The cap is covered with a greenish spore-containing slime, which attract flies and other insects that eat the spores and disperse them. It is an edible mushroom used as an ingredient in Chinese haute cuisine; the mushroom is grown commercially and commonly sold in Asian markets. Nutritional analysis has shown that the mushroom is rich in protein, carbohydrates and dietary fiber. The mushroom also contains various bioactive compounds, and has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

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Phallus calongei[edit]

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Phallus calongei is a species of stinkhorn mushroom. Found in Pakistan, it was described as new to science in 2009. Starting out as an "egg", the fully expanded fruit body consists of a single, thick, stipe with a cap attached to the apex and covered with olive-green, slimy spore-containing gleba. It is distinguished from other similar Phallus species by a combination of features, including a pinkish, reticulated (network-like) cap, and a stipe that is tapered at both ends. The edibility of the mushroom is unknown.

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Cantharellus lateritius[edit]

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Cantharellus lateritius, commonly known as the smooth chanterelle, is a species of edible fungus in the Cantharellaceae family of mushrooms. A saprobic species, it is found in North America, Africa, Malaysia, and India. The species has a complex taxonomic history, and has undergone several name changes since its first description by American mycologist Lewis David de Schweinitz in 1822. The fruit bodies of the fungus are brightly colored yellow to orange, and usually highly conspicuous against the soil in which they are found. At maturity, the mushroom resembles a filled funnel with the spore-bearing surface along the sloping outer sides. The texture of the fertile undersurface (hymenium) of the caps is a distinguishing characteristic of the species: unlike the well-known golden chanterelle, the hymenium of C. lateritius is much smoother. Chemical analysis has revealed the presence of several carotenoid compounds in the fruit bodies.

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Lysurus periphragmoides[edit]

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Lysurus periphragmoides, commonly known as the stalked lattice stinkhorn or chambered stinkhorn, is a species of fungus in the stinkhorn family. It was originally described as Simblum periphragmoides in 1831, and has been known as many different names before being transferred to Lysurus in 1980. The saprobic fungus has a pantropical distribution, and has been found in Africa, Asia, Australasia, and the Americas, where it grows on fertile ground and on mulch. The fruit body, which can extend up to 15 cm (5.9 in) tall, consists of a reddish latticed head (a receptaculum) placed on top of a long stalk. A dark olive-green spore mass, the gleba, fills the interior of the lattice and extends outwards between the arms. Like other members of the Phallaceae family, the gleba has a fetid odor that attracts flies and other insects to help disperse its spores. The immature "egg" form of the fungus is considered edible.

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Suillus collinitus[edit]

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Suillus collinitus is a pored mushroom of the genus Suillus in the Suillaceae family. It is an edible mushroom found in European pine forests. The mushroom has a reddish to chestnut-brown cap that reaches up to 11 cm (4.3 in) in diameter, and a yellow stem measuring up to 7 cm (2.8 in) tall by 1 to 2 cm (0.4 to 0.8 in) thick. On the underside of the cap are small angular pores, initially bright yellow before turning greenish-brown with age. A characteristic feature that helps to distinguish it from similar Suillus species, like S. granulatus, is the pinkish mycelia at the base of the stem.

Molecular analysis has shown the species to be related to other typical Mediterranean Suillus species such as S. bellinii, S. luteus, and S. mediterraneensis. S. collinitus is a mycorrhizal species, and forms associations with several species of pine, most notably the Aleppo pine. This tree species is commonly used in reforestation schemes and soil conservation against erosion in the Mediterranean region, and S. collinitus is often used as a beneficial inoculant to help the young trees better survive in typically harsh soil conditions.

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Suillus pungens[edit]

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Suillus pungens, commonly known as the pungent slippery Jack, or the pungent Suillus, is a species of fungus in the genus Suillus. The fruit bodies of the fungus have slimy convex caps measuring up to 14 cm (5.5 in) wide. The mushroom is characterized by the very distinct color changes that occur in the cap throughout development. Typically, the young cap is whitish, later becoming grayish-olive to reddish-brown or a mottled combination of these colors. The mushroom has a dotted stem up to 7 cm (2.8 in) long, and 2 cm (0.8 in) thick. On the underside on the cap is the spore-bearing tissue consisting of vertically arranged minute tubes that appear as a surface of angular, yellowish pores. The presence of milky droplets on the pore surface of young individuals, especially in humid environments, is a characteristic feature of this species. S. pungens can usually be differentiated from other similar Suillus species by distribution, odor and taste. The mushroom is considered edible, but not highly regarded.

An ectomycorrhizal species, it fruits almost exclusively with the Monterey and Bishop pine, two trees with small and scattered natural ranges concentrated in the West Coast of the United States. Several studies have investigated the role of S. pungens in the coastal Californian forest ecosystem it occupies. Molecular phylogenetics has shown that although the species produces more fruit bodies than other ectomycorrhizal fungi at the same site, it is not a dominant root colonizer, occupying only a small percentage of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Its ability to fruit prolifically despite minimal root colonization is explained by its ability to efficiently transfer nutrients from its host.

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Hygrophorus bakerensis[edit]

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Hygrophorus bakerensis, commonly known as the Mt. Baker waxy cap, the brown almond waxy cap or the tawny almond waxy cap, is a species of fungus in the Hygrophoraceae family. It is characterized by its medium to large, relatively slender-statured fruit bodies with an almond odor, and growth often on or near rotting conifer wood. The slimy cap is brown in the center and cream to white near its curved edges. The gills and the stem are white, and in moist environments are often covered with droplets of a translucent liquid. The mushroom is known only from the United States, where it is common in coniferous forests throughout the Pacific Northwest. It was initially collected in Washington State on Mount Baker, a volcano. Although edible, the mushroom is not considered to be of high quality.

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Mycena aurantiomarginata[edit]

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Mycena aurantiomarginata, commonly known as the golden-edge bonnet, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family. It has a widespread distribution, common in Europe, and North America, and also having been collected in North Africa, Asia, and Central America. The fungus is saprobic, and produces mushrooms that grow on the floor of coniferous forests. The mushrooms have a bell-shaped cap up to 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter, a slender stem up to 6 cm (2.4 in) long with yellow to orange fibrils at the base, and characteristic bright orange color of their gill edges. A microscopic characteristic is the club-shaped cystidia covered with numerous spiky projections that resemble a mace. The edibility of the mushroom has not been determined. A 2010 publication reported the discovery and characterization of a novel pigment named mycenaaurin A, isolated from the fruit body of the mushroom. The pigment is likely responsible for the color of the mushroom, and it has antibiotic activity that may function in nature to prevent certain bacteria from growing on the fruit bodies.

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Inocybe cookei[edit]

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Inocybe cookei, commonly known as the straw fibrecap, is a species of mushroom in the Inocybaceae family. It was first described in 1892 by Giacomo Bresadola, and is named in honour of Mordecai Cubitt Cooke. The species can be found in Europe, Asia and North America. It produces small mushrooms of an ochre colour, with a prominent umbo, fibres on the cap and a distinctive bulb at the base of the stem. It grows from soil in mixed woodland, and is encountered in summer and autumn, though is not common. Ecologically, it feeds through use of ectomycorrhiza. Inocybe cookei has been described as both toxic and non-toxic, but either way, is not advised for consumption.

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Collybia cookei[edit]

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Collybia cookei is a species of fungus in the Tricholomataceae family, and one of three species in the genus Collybia. It is known from Europe, Asia, and North America. The fungus produces fruit bodies that usually grow on the decomposing remains of other mushrooms, like Meripilus giganteus, Inonotus hispidus, or species of Russula; occasionally fruit bodies are found on rich humus or well-decayed wood. The fungus produces small white mushrooms with caps up to 9 mm (0.35 in) in diameter, supported by thin stems that originate from a yellowish-brown sclerotium. The mushroom is difficult to distinguish from the other two species of Collybia unless an effort is made to examine the sclerotia, which is usually buried in the substrate. The edibility of the mushroom has not been determined.

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Lactarius vietus[edit]

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Lactarius vietus (commonly known as the grey milkcap) is a species of fungus in the family Russulaceae, first described by Elias Magnus Fries. It produces moderately sized and brittle mushrooms, which grow on the forest floor or on rotting wood. The flattened-convex cap can vary in shape, sometimes forming the shape of a wide funnel. It is typically grey, but the colour varies. The species has crowded, light-coloured gills, which produce white milk. The spore print is typically whitish, but also varies considerably. The mushrooms typically have a strong, acrid taste and have been described as inedible, but other authors have described them as consumable after boiling. L. vietus feeds by forming an ectomycorrhizal relationship with surrounding trees, and it favours birch. It grows in autumn months and is fairly common in Europe, North America and eastern Asia.

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Pilophorus acicularis[edit]

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Pilophorus acicularis, commonly known as the nail lichen or the devil's matchstick, is a species of lichen in the Cladoniaceae family. It was originally described in 1803, and transferred to the genus Pilophorus in 1857. A fructicose (shrub-like) species, it grows directly on silicate rocks in dense clusters. The lichen starts out as a granular crust on the rock surface, and develops stalks, or pseudopodetia, up to 3 cm (1.2 in) tall and about 1 mm thick that have rounded black apothecia at the tips. The stalks are erect and curved so as to appeared combed. It is found on the west coast of North America up to Alaska, and in eastern Eurasia. In addition to green algae, the lichen contains cyanobacteria that help contribute to soil fertility by supplying fixed nitrogen.

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Collybia cirrhata[edit]

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Collybia cirrhata is a species of fungus in the Tricholomataceae family of the Agaricales order (gilled mushrooms). The species was first described in the scientific literature in 1786, but not validly named until 1803. Found in Europe, Northern Eurasia, and North America, it is known from temperate, boreal, and alpine or arctic habitats. It is a saprobic species that grows in clusters on the decaying or blackened remains of other mushrooms. The fruit bodies are small, with whitish convex to flattened caps up to 11 mm (0.43 in) in diameter, narrow white gills, and slender whitish stems 8–25 mm (0.3–1.0 in) long and up to 2 mm (0.08 in) thick. C. cirrhata can be distinguished from the other two members of Collybia by the absence of a sclerotium at the base of the stem. The mushroom, although not poisonous, is considered inedible because of its insubstantial size.

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Leucopholiota decorosa[edit]

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Leucopholiota decorosa is a species of fungus in the Tricholomataceae family of mushrooms. Commonly known as the decorated Pholiota, it is distinguished by its fruit body which is covered with pointed brown, curved scales on the cap and stem, and by its white gills. Found in the eastern United States, France, and Pakistan, it is saprobic, growing on the decaying wood of hardwood trees. L. decorosa was first described by American mycologist Charles Horton Peck as Agaricus decorosus in 1873, and the species has been transferred to several genera in its history, including Tricholoma, Tricholomopsis, Armillaria, and Floccularia. Three American mycologists considered the species unique enough to warrant its own genus, and transferred it into the new genus Leucopholiota in a 1996 publication. Lookalike species with similar colors and scaly fruit bodies include Pholiota squarrosoides, Phaeomarasmius erinaceellus, and Leucopholiota lignicola. L. decorosa is considered an edible mushroom.

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Mycena arcangeliana[edit]

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Mycena arcangeliana (commonly known as the angel's bonnet or the late-season bonnet) is a species of Mycenaceae fungus. It has been known by a number of scientific names, and its taxonomy is still somewhat disputed. It produces small mushrooms with caps varying in colour from whitish to a darker grey-brown, and stems of an olive-greyish that fades with age. The mushrooms can be mistaken for the similar Mycena flavescens. They have a mild taste, but a strong smell of iodoform; they are not edible. The species grows on dead wood in autumn months, and can be found in western Europe.

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  1. ^ "Liber Herbarum II: Lobaria pulmonaria". Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  2. ^ Alternatively spelled witch's or witches