Gemology (or gemmology) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. It is considered a geoscience and a branch of mineralogy. Some jewelers are academically trained gemologists and are qualified to identify and evaluate gems. Recently, the demand for gemological services has grown, as increasing quantities of synthetic gems such as cubic zirconia and synthetic moissanite are manufactured. Gemologists perform such work as the identification of synthetic and natural gemstones, fracture-filled gemstones, and color-enhanced or treated natural gemstones.
A gemstone is a mineral, rock, or petrified material that when cut or faceted and polished is collectible or can be used in jewelry. Gemstones are basically categorized based on of their crystal structure, specific gravity, refractive index, other optical properties, and hardness.
Jewellery (or jewelry) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. The word jewellery is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French "jouel" in around the 13th century. Further tracing leads back to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. Jewellery is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently found 100,000 year-old Nassarius shells that were made into beads are thought to be the oldest known jewellery.
Jewellery is made out of almost every material known and has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While high-quality and artistic pieces are made with gemstones and precious metals, less-costly costume jewellery is made from less-valuable materials and is mass-produced.
An earring is a piece of jewelry that is worn on the ear. They are worn by both genders, although until recently in western cultures, they were more typically worn by women. Earrings are attached to the ear through a piercing in the earlobe or some other external part of the ear. Common locations other than the earlobe for piercings include the rook, tragus, or across the helix.
Earring components can be made out of any number of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, precious stones and beads. Designs can range from small loops or studs to large plates or dangling items. The size is generally limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. People who habitually wear heavy earrings may find that over time, the earlobe and piercing stretch. Earrings are worn around the world in most cultures, both currently and historically. In many cultures, it is common to pierce the ears of young girls soon after birth. This has become somewhat controversial because of its involuntary nature. Although not as common as with females, ear piercing among males has also become popular in North America and Europe.