Portal:Gemology and Jewelry

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Gemology and jewellery portal

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Gemology (or gemmology) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. It is considered a geoscience and a branch of mineralogy. Some jewelers are academically trained gemologists and are qualified to identify and evaluate gems. Recently, the demand for gemological services has grown, as increasing quantities of synthetic gems such as cubic zirconia and synthetic moissanite are manufactured. Gemologists perform such work as the identification of synthetic and natural gemstones, fracture-filled gemstones, and color-enhanced or treated natural gemstones.

A gemstone is a mineral, rock, or petrified material that when cut or faceted and polished is collectible or can be used in jewelry. Gemstones are basically categorized based on of their crystal structure, specific gravity, refractive index, other optical properties, and hardness.

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Jewellery (or jewelry) is a personal ornament, such as a necklace, ring, or bracelet, made from jewels, precious metals or other substance. The word jewellery is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French "jouel" in around the 13th century. Further tracing leads back to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. Jewellery is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently found 100,000 year-old Nassarius shells that were made into beads are thought to be the oldest known jewellery.

Jewellery is made out of almost every material known and has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While high-quality and artistic pieces are made with gemstones and precious metals, less-costly costume jewellery is made from less-valuable materials and is mass-produced.

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A pearl is a hard, rounded object produced by certain animals, primarily mollusks such as pearl oysters. Pearls can be used in jewelry and also crushed in cosmetics or paint formulations. Pearl is valued as a gemstone and is cultivated or harvested for jewelry. The unique luster of pearls depends upon the reflection and refraction of light from the translucent layers and is finer in proportion as the layers become thinner and more numerous. The iridescence that some pearls display is caused by the overlapping of successive layers, which breaks up light falling on the surface. Pearls are usually white, sometimes with a creamy or pinkish tinge, but may be tinted with yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, or black.

Before the beginning of the 20th Century, pearl hunting was the most common way of harvesting pearls. Now, however, almost all pearls used for jewelry are cultured by planting a core or nucleus into pearl oysters. The largest pearl ever found so far, came from the Philippines in 1934. It weighed 14 lb (6.4 kg) when it was discovered by an anonymous Filipino Muslim diver off the island of Palawan.

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Wikibooks  Wikimedia Commons Wikinews  Wikiquote  Wikisource  Wikiversity  Wikivoyage  Wiktionary  Wikidata 
Books Media News Quotations Texts Learning resources Travel guides Definitions Database