(also known as geoscience
, the geosciences
or Earth Science
) is an all-embracing term for the sciences
related to the planet Earth
. They are a special type of planetary sciences
which deal with the structure and composition of the Earth, its origins, physical features, changing aspects, and all of its natural phenomena. Earth is the only planet known to have life, and hence the only planet with biological processes and a biosphere.
The major disciplines of Earth sciences use physics, mathematics, and chemistry to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system. As in many sciences, the Earth can be studied both experimentally and theoretically. Also, there are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth Science.
Although mining and precious stones have been in human interests throughout the history of civilization, their development into the sciences of economic geology and mineralogy did not occur until the 18th century. The study of the earth, particularly palaeontology, blossomed in the 19th century and the growth of other disciplines like geophysics in the 20th century led to the development of the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s, which has had a similar impact on the Earth sciences as the theory of evolution had on biology. Earth sciences today are closely linked to climate research and the petroleum and mineral exploration industries.
Applications of Earth sciences include the exploration and exploitation of mineral and hydrocarbon resources, cartography, weather forecasting patterns, and warning of volcanic eruptions. Earth sciences are related to the environmental sciences as well as the other subfields of planetary astronomy.
The geography of Indonesia
is dominated by volcanoes
that are formed due to subduction zones
between the Eurasian plate
and the Indo-Australian plate
. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau
for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba
for its supervolcanic
eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 Before Present
which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter
, and Mount Tambora
for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815. Volcanoes in Indonesia are a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire
. The 150 entries in the list below are grouped into six geographical regions, four of which belong to the volcanoes of the Sunda Arc
trench system. The remaining two groups are volcanoes of Halmahera
, including its surrounding volcanic islands
, and volcanoes of Sulawesi
and the Sangihe Islands
. The latter group is in one volcanic arc
together with the Philippines
volcanoes. The most active volcanoes are Kelut
island which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelut has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index
(VEI), while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times. The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior
has named Merapi as a Decade Volcano
since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity.
Erg Chebbi (Arabic: عرج شبّي) is the sole Saharan erg in Morocco. It is 22 km long (North-South) and 5 km wide. Its dunes reach a maximum height of 150 meters. It is located roughly 40 kilometers south-east of Erfoud. The local center for tourists is the village of Merzouga.