Portal:Earth sciences

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Portal:Geology)
Jump to: navigation, search
The Earth Sciences Portal

Introduction

The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png
Earth sciences (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or Earth Science) is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. They are a special type of planetary sciences which deal with the structure and composition of the Earth, its origins, physical features, changing aspects, and all of its natural phenomena. Earth is the only planet known to have life, and hence the only planet with biological processes and a biosphere.

The major disciplines of Earth sciences use physics, mathematics, and chemistry to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system. As in many sciences, the Earth can be studied both experimentally and theoretically. Also, there are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth Science.

Although mining and precious stones have been in human interests throughout the history of civilization, their development into the sciences of economic geology and mineralogy did not occur until the 18th century. The study of the earth, particularly palaeontology, blossomed in the 19th century and the growth of other disciplines like geophysics in the 20th century led to the development of the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s, which has had a similar impact on the Earth sciences as the theory of evolution had on biology. Earth sciences today are closely linked to climate research and the petroleum and mineral exploration industries.

Applications of Earth sciences include the exploration and exploitation of mineral and hydrocarbon resources, cartography, weather forecasting patterns, and warning of volcanic eruptions. Earth sciences are related to the environmental sciences as well as the other subfields of planetary astronomy.

Show new selections below

Selected article

Amchitka Underground Test Site
Amchitka is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. It is about 68 kilometres (42 mi) long, and varies from 3 to 6 km (2–3.75 mi) in width. It has a maritime climate, with many storms, and mostly overcast skies. The island was populated for more than 2,500 years by the Aleut people, but has had no permanent population since 1832. It was included in the Alaska Purchase of 1867, and has since been part of the United States. During World War II, it was used as an airfield by US forces in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. Amchitka was selected by the United States Atomic Energy Commission to be the site for underground detonations of nuclear weapons. Three such tests were carried out: Long Shot, an 80 kiloton blast in 1965; Milrow, a 1 megaton blast in 1969; and Cannikin in 1971 — at "under 5 megatons", the largest underground test ever conducted by the United States. The tests were highly controversial, with environmental groups fearing that the Cannikin explosion, in particular, would cause severe earthquakes and tsunamis. Amchitka is no longer used for nuclear testing, although it is monitored for the leakage of radioactive materials.

Selected picture

Antarctica
Credit: NASA

Antarctica, the continent surrounding the Earth's South Pole, is the coldest place on earth and is almost entirely covered by ice. Antarctica was discovered in late January 1820. Too cold and dry to support virtually any vascular plants, Antarctica's flora presently consists of around 250 lichens, 100 mosses, 25-30 liverworts, and around 700 terrestrial and aquatic algal species.

Did you know?

Photograph of volcano
  • ...that a tuya (pictured) is a type of flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet?
  • ...that in the United States, on average tornadoes are around 500 feet (150 m) across, and stay on the ground for 5 miles (8 km)?
  • ...that dust storms can carry large amounts of dust, so much so that the leading edge of one can appear as a solid wall of dust as much as 1.6 km (1 mile) high?
  • ...that the area of the world Ocean is 361 million square  kilometers, its volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometers, and its average depth is 3,790 meters?
  • ...that three quarters of the earth's atmosphere lies within the troposphere, and the depth of this layer varies between 17 km at the equator and 7 km at the poles?
  • ...that the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the ocean?

Things you can do

Nuvola apps kword.png
  • Edit an Earth sciences article
Whether you are an expert or a novice, be bold, improve an article by editing it. If you're not sure how to do it, practice in the sandbox.
  • Join one of the WikiProjects listed below.
    • Watch its talk page for earth science-related issues on Wikipedia.
  • Improve this portal
  • Review articles
    • Assign importance and quality to unassessed articles (see the project's assessment department).
    • If you see a problem you can't fix yourself, add a cleanup tag.
  • Advanced Editing

WikiProjects

Quality content

Related topics

For a more comprehensive treatment of topics, see Outline of earth science and Index of earth science articles

Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere
Biosphere Systems Others
Categories

Related Portals



Nuvola apps kalzium.svg Science:

Astrolabe-Persian-18C.jpg History of science    P philosophy.png  Philosophy of science    Complex-adaptive-system.jpg Systems science    Nuvola apps edu mathematics-p.svg Mathematics    EscherichiaColi NIAID.jpg Biology    Nuvola apps edu science.svg Chemistry    Stylised Lithium Atom.svg Physics    Gnome-globe.svg Earth sciences    Nuvola apps display.png Technology   

Associated Wikimedia

Earth sciences on Wikinews     Earth sciences on Wikiquote     Earth sciences on Wikibooks     Geology portal on Wikisource     Earth sciences on Wiktionary     Earth sciences on Wikimedia Commons
News Quotations Manuals & Texts Texts Definitions Images & Media
link=Wikinews:Earth sciences
Wikiquote-logo.svg
Wikibooks-logo.svg
Wikisource-logo.svg
Wiktionary-logo-en-35px.png
Commons-logo.svg