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Geometry arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry is one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers.

In modern times, geometric concepts have been extended. They sometimes show a high level of abstraction and complexity. Geometry now uses methods of calculus and abstract algebra, so that many modern branches of the field are not easily recognizable as the descendants of early geometry. (See areas of mathematics.) A geometer is one who works or is specified in geometry.

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All of the trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O.

The trigonometric functions are functions of an angle; they are most important when studying triangles and modeling periodic phenomena, among many other applications. They are commonly defined as ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angle, and can equivalently be defined as the lengths of various line segments from a unit circle. More modern definitions express them as infinite series or as solutions of certain differential equations, allowing their extension to positive and negative values and even to complex numbers.

The study of trigonometric functions dates back to Babylonian times, and a considerable amount of fundamental work was done by ancient Greek, Indian and Arab mathematicians.

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Euclid of Alexandria

Euclid (also referred to as Euclid of Alexandria) (Greek: Εὐκλείδης) (c. 325–c. 265 BC), a Greek mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Hellenistic Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC283 BC), is often considered to be the "father of geometry". His most popular work, Elements, is thought to be one of the most successful textbooks in the history of mathematics. Within it, the properties of geometrical objects are deduced from a small set of axioms, thereby founding the axiomatic method of mathematics.


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Ruled hyperboloid.jpg

The above shows an example of doubly ruled surface – the hyperboloid of one sheet. Although the wires are straight lines, they are lying within the surface. Through any point on this surface pass two straight lines, so it is doubly ruled.

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Topics in Geometry

Basic topics Trigonometry Euclidean geometry Other geometries
Differential geometry Riemannian geometry Algebraic geometry Other

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