Portal:Hip hop

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The Hip Hop Portal


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Hip hop refers to both a culture and the music that stems forth from the culture. The musical style began in 1970s New York City with the innovations of such pioneers as Kool DJ Herc, Grandmaster Flash, Grandwizard Theodore, Afrika Bambaataa, and DJ Hollywood. The notable elements of the culture are rapping, DJing/production, graffiti, breakdancing, and beatboxing. It originates in the African American, Afro-Caribbean and Latino American communities of New York City (with the South Bronx as the center) in the late 1970s. It was DJ Afrika Bambaataa that outlined the five pillars of hip-hop culture: MCing, DJing, breaking, graffiti writing, and knowledge. Other elements include beatboxing, hip hop fashion, and slang. Since first emerging in the Bronx, the lifestyle of hip hop culture has spread around the world. When hip hop music began to emerge, it was based around disc jockeys who created rhythmic beats by looping breaks (small portions of songs emphasizing a percussive pattern) on two turntables, which is now more commonly referred to as sampling. This was later accompanied by "rapping" (a rhythmic style of chanting or poetry more formally in 16 bar measures or time frames) and beatboxing, a vocal technique mainly used to imitate percussive elements of the music and various technical effects of hip hop DJs. An original form of dancing and particular styles of dress arose among followers of this new music. These elements experienced considerable refinement and development over the course of the history of the culture.

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Hip hop music is a musical genre which developed alongside hip hop culture, defined by key stylistic elements such as rapping, DJing, sampling, scratching and beatboxing. Hip hop began in the Bronx in New York City in the 1970s, primarily among African Americans and Jamaican Americans. The term rap is often used synonymously with hip hop, but hip hop denotes the practices of an entire subculture. Rapping, also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat. Beats, almost always in 4/4 time signature, can be created by looping portions of other songs, usually by a DJ, or sampled from portions of other songs by a producer. Modern beats incorporate synthesizers, drum machines, and live bands. Rappers may write, memorize, or improvise their lyrics and perform their works a cappella or to a beat. Creation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in "Rapper's Delight".

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Selected biography


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Clive Campbell (born April 16, 1955), also known as Kool Herc, DJ Kool Herc and Kool DJ Herc, is a Jamaican-born DJ who is credited with originating hip hop music, in The Bronx, New York City. His playing of hard funk records of the sort typified by James Brown was an alternative both to the violent gang culture of the Bronx and to the nascent popularity of disco in the 1970s. In response to the reactions of his dancers, Campbell began to isolate the instrumental portion of the record which emphasized the drum beat—the "break"—and switch from one break to another to yet another.

Using the two turntable set-up of the disco DJs, Campbell's style led to the use of two copies of the same record to elongate the break. This breakbeat DJing, using hard funk, rock, and records with Latin percussion, formed the basis of hip hop music. Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers helped lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. He called his dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls", or simply b-boys and b-girls. Campbell's DJ style was quickly taken up by figures such as Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash. Unlike them, he never made the move into commercially recorded hip hop in its earliest years.

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The New school hip hop was a second wave of recorded hip hop music starting 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J. Like the hip hop preceding it, it came predominately from New York City. The new school was initially characterized in form by drum machine led minimalism, often tinged with elements of rock. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street b-boy attitude. These elements contrasted sharply with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers and party rhymes of artists prevalent in 1984, and rendered them old school. New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream. The terms "old school" and "new school" have fallen more and more into the common vernacular as synonyms for "old" and "new" (witness the 2003 Urban Dictionary entry for new school.

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Fear of a Black Planet is the third studio album by American hip hop group Public Enemy, released April 10, 1990, on Def Jam Recordings and Columbia Records. Production for the album was handled by production team The Bomb Squad, which expanded on the dense, sample-layered sound of the group's previous album, It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (1988). They constructed elaborate sound collages for the album's music, incorporating varying rhythms, numerous samples, media sound bites, and eccentric music loops, which reflected the group's political tones. Fear of a Black Planet contains lyrical themes concerning organization and empowerment within the African-American community, while presenting criticism of social issues affecting African Americans at the time of the album's conception.

The album debuted at number 40 on the US Billboard Top Pop Albums, selling one million copies in its first week. It subsequently peaked at number 10 on the chart and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. Upon its release, Fear of a Black Planet received general acclaim from music critics, who praised its musical quality, sonic detail, societal themes, and insightful lyrics, and was ranked one of the best albums in 1990 by various publications. It has since been recognized as one of hip hop's greatest and most important albums, as well as musically and culturally significant. In 2003, the album was ranked number 300 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2005, it was chosen by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry.

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Graffiti "Hip Hop" in Eugene, Oregon. "Boy Blue" at the Breakin' Convention London 2006.


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Hip hop WikiProject


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  • The Hip hop WikiProject is a project that helps to assemble writers and editors interested in helping Hip hop related articles.
  • The aim of this project is to standardize and improve articles related to Hip hop, as well as to create missing articles.
  • To become a member of this Hip hop WikiProject (anyone may join), simply click here - and add {{user|username}}
  • The Hip hop "collaboration page" is for nominating and voting for Hip hop Wikiprojects tasks.
Featured article FA  A-Class article A   GA  B-Class article B  C-Class article C  Start-Class article Start  Stub-Class article Stub  Featured list FL   List  Wikipedia Book Book  Category page Category  Disambiguation page Disambig   File   Portal   Project   Template   NA   ???  Total
16 0 162 209 383 1,242 1,310 21 115 20 507 1 9 2 4 496 120 1,179 5,796
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Things you can do


  • Add the project template {{WikiProject hip hop}} to all hip hop related talk pages.
  • Add the Hip hop footer Template {{subst:Hiphop}} to the bottom of related articles.
  • Add this portals template {{subst:Hip hop portal}} to hip hop related articles.
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New school hip hop, Old school hip hop, Golden age hip hop, Chingy, Gangsta rap, Hip hop music, History of hip hop music

Jay-Z, DJ Quik, Mobb Deep, History of hip hop music


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