The Republic of India is a country that occupies a greater part of the Indian subcontinent. It borders Pakistan in the northwest, the People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan in the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. India's coastline stretches for over seven thousand kilometers. Its neighbours in the Indian Ocean are the island nations of the Maldives in the southwest, Sri Lanka in the south, and Indonesia in the southeast. India is the second most populated country in the world, with a population of over one billion and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. It is a constitutional republic consisting of twenty eight States and seven union territories. The word India derives from the Old Persian cognate for the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indus river. The Constitution of India also recognizes Bhārat listen (help·info) as an official name with equal status.
A centre of important historic trade routes, India is the home to some of the most ancient civilisations. India is the birthplace to three world religions:Jainism, Sikhism and Hinduism. It also has the largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. Hinduism is the major religion followed in India. India is a secular country. India was a former colony of the British Empire under the British Raj before gaining independence on 15 August 1947. The country has witnessed significant economic and military growth after the liberalization of the Indian economy. India is also well known for upholding the concept of peace, as was demonstrated by its peaceful method of freedom struggle.
National Anthem of India
Kazi Nazrul Islam (b. May 25, 1899 — d. August 29, 1976) was a Bengali poet, musician, revolutionary and philosopher who is best known for pioneering works of Bengali poetry. He is popularly known as the Bidrohi Kobi — Rebel Poet — as many of his works showcase an intense rebellion against oppression of humans through slavery, hatred and tradition. He is officially recognised as the national poet of Bangladesh and commemorated in India.
Born in a poor Muslim family, Nazrul received religious education and worked as a muezzin at a local mosque. He learned of poetry, drama, and literature while working with theatrical groups. After a stint in the Indian Army, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Kolkata (then Calcutta). He assailed the British Raj and preached revolution through his poetic works, such as "Bidrohi" ("The Rebel") and "Bhangar Gaan" ("The Song of Destruction"), as well as his publication "Dhumketu" ("The Comet"). While in prison, Nazrul wrote the "Rajbandir Jabanbandi" ("Deposition of a Political Prisoner"), intensifying his criticism of imperialism. Nazrul condemned Muslim religious fundamentalism and explored the lives of downtrodden masses in India. He remained active in political organisations and literary, art, and music societies.
Nazrul's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender. His impassioned patriotic stance (during British India) often earned him prison time. He wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best-known for his poems, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals. Nazrul wrote and composed music for his nearly 3000 songs which are collectively known as Nazrul Sangeet (Nazrul songs) and widely popular today. At the age of 43 (in 1942) he began showing the signs of an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. Suffering from Pick's Disease, as later diagnosed by Dr. Hans Hoff in Austria (Vienna), Nazrul gradually yielded to incurable mental illness, which forced him to live in isolation for many years. Invited by the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972, where he died four years later. (more...)
Battle at Lanka (1649-53), from the Indian Hindu epic Ramayana by the 17th century Muslim painter Sahibdin. It depicts monkey army of the protagonist Rama (top left, blue figure) fighting the demon-king of the king of Lanka, Ravana in order to save Rama's kidnapped wife Sita. The painting depicts multiple events in the battle against the three-headed demon general Trisiras, in bottom left - Trisiras is beheaded by the monkey-companion of Rama - Hanuman.
Did you know...
national fruit is Mango (Mangifera indica). India's
India is the birthplace of four of the world's major religions; namely Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
It is one of the few countries in the world that gained independence without violence.
India is the world's largest democracy.
The number zero was invented in India by Aryabhata, a mathematician and astronomer.
Chess is believed to have originated in India during the Gupta Empire.
One of the largest employers in the world is the Indian Railways, employing over a million.
||Timeline of Indian history, Indus Valley Civilization, Dholavira, Science and technology in ancient India, Meluhha, Aryan invasion theory, Out of India theory, Greek Conquests in India, Indian Ancient Maritime History, Mauryan dynasty, Ashokan Era, Sunga dynasty, Hoysala, Vijayanagara, Satavahana, Indo-Greek kingdom, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Western Kshatrapas, Gupta Empire, Cholas, Pala Empire, Islamic incursions in India, Mughal Era, Maratha Empire, British Raj, British East India Company, Governor-General, Viceroy, War of Independence, 1857, Indian independence movement, Indian National Army, Azad Hind, Quit India Movement, Partition of India, Non-Aligned Movement, Sino-Indian War, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War, 2001 India Pakistan standoff, Military, Demographic
||Law, Hindu law, Constitution, Political parties (Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party), Foreign relations, Elections, Political divisions, Reservations in India
||Government agencies, Legislative branch (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha) Executive branch (President & Vice-President, Prime Minister & Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, Attorney-General, Election Commission, Foreign Minister; Law enforcement: CBI, CID, Intelligence: IB, RAW), Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation Judicial branch (Supreme Court), Military (Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Force, Coast Guard)
||The Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Indo Gangetic Plain, Deccan Plateau, Thar Desert, Ganges River, Rann of Kutch, Brahmaputra River, North-East India; Mountains, Valleys, Islands, Rivers; States and territories, Cities, Districts, Regions, Fauna and flora
||Rupee, Bombay Stock Exchange, National Stock Exchange, Standard of living, Companies, Reserve Bank of India, Energy policy (Solar, Wind, Nuclear)
||Languages, Standard of living, Religion
|Arts & Culture
||Music (Carnatic, Hindustani, Indi-pop), Dance, Languages, Literature, Architecture, Film & TV, Cuisine, Holidays, Folklore, Education, Media, Indian martial arts
|Science & Tech
||Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR), Indian Institute of Astrophysics, National Centre for Software Technology, AIIMS, IISc, IIT, NIT, BITS-Pilani, INRegistry, Indian numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, India Internet Exchange, ICRISAT, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad
||Indian English, Indian nationality law, Numbering system, Indian Space Research Organisation, Communications, Transportation (Highways, Rail transport, Auto rickshaw), National Highways Development Project, Flag, Tourism, Licence plates, Indian nationalism, Metrication in India
Wikipedias in Indian languages