The Indian independence struggle incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. It involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and rebellions between 1857 and India's emergence as a unified nation-state on August 15,1947.
The initial Indian Rebellion of 1857 was sparked when soldiers serving in the British East India Company's British Army mutinied led by Mangal Pandey and Indian kingdoms rebelled against the British.
After the revolt was crushed, the British partitioned the region into British India and the Princely States. They tried to develop a class of educated elites, whose political organizing sought Indian political rights and representation. However, increasing public disenchantment with the British authority — their curtailing of Indian civil liberties (such as the Rowlatt Act), political rights, and culture as well as their avoidance of basic issues facing common Indians and an essential nonacceptance of foreign occupation — led to an upsurge in Revolutionary movement for Indian independence aimed at overthrowing the European colonial powers, particularly the British.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857, (Hindi: १८५७ का प्रथम भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता सन्ग्राम) also known as the First War of Indian Independence, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Indian Mutiny was a prolonged period of armed uprisings in different parts of India against British occupation of that part of the subcontinent.