Portal:Indigenous peoples of North America

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Welcome to the Indigenous peoples of North America portal

Indigenous peoples of North America include the inhabitants of North America before the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples.

In Canada, the most commonly preferred term for indigenous peoples is Aboriginal peoples. Of these Aboriginal peoples who are not Inuit or Métis, First Nations is the most commonly preferred term of self-identification. First Nations peoples make up approximately 3% of the Canadian population. The official term for First Nations people is Indian. (See also: Aboriginal peoples in Canada portal)

Indigenous peoples in the United States are commonly called American Indians or Native Americans. American Indians make up 2% of the population, with more than 6 million people identifying themselves as Native Americans, although only 1.8 million are registered tribal members. Only a minority live on Indian reservations.

Indigenous peoples of Mexico include many cultures—most numerous among them the Nahua people, the Maya peoples, and the Mixtec and Zapotec peoples. Indigenous people, defined primarily as people who speak one of the 62 Indigenous languages of Mexico, are estimated to make up around 9% of the Mexican population—about 10 million people.

Indigenous-language Wikipedias: ᏣᎳᎩ (Cherokee)  · ᐃᔨᔫ (Cree)  · ᐃᓄᒃ (Inuktitut)  · Iñupiak  · Kalaallisut  · Nahuatlahtolli  · Dínék'ehjí (Navajo)  · Yucatec Maya  · Tsêhesenêstsestôtse (Cheyenne)
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Mexico, in the second article of its Constitution, is defined as a "pluricultural" nation in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it, and in which the indigenous peoples are the original foundation. According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas or CDI in Spanish) and the INEGI (official census institute), there are 10.1 million indigenous people in Mexico, of many different ethnic groups, which constitute 9.8% of the population in the country.

The Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Languages recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages" which have the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken.

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Nez Perce warrior on horse

The Nez Perce or Nez Percé (pronounced /nɛz pɝs/, or /ne pɛr'se/ as in French) are a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the Pacific Northwest region of the United States at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The Nez Perce's name for themselves is Ni-Mii-Puu (pronounced nee-mee-poo), which means simply "the People."

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Sequoyah

Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏉᏯ Ssiquoya, as he signed his name, or ᏎᏉᏯ Se-quo-ya, as his name is often spelled today in Cherokee) (circa 1767–1843), named in English George Gist or Guess, was a Cherokee silversmith who in 1821 completed his independent creation of a Cherokee syllabary, making reading and writing in Cherokee possible. This was the only time in recorded history that a member of an illiterate people independently created an effective writing system. After seeing its worth, the Cherokee Nation rapidly began to use his syllabary and officially adopted it in 1825. Their literacy rate rapidly surpassed that of surrounding European-American settlers.

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Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect.

Chief Seattle
(c. 1786–1866)

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Nations,
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U.S. and Canada: AlabamaAlgonquinAnishinaabeApacheApalacheeAppamattocArapahoBabineBlackfootCahuillaCatawbaCherokeeCheyenneChichimecaChickahominyChickasawChinookanChipewyanChiricahuaChoctawChumashCoeur d'AleneComancheCoreeCrowCupeñoDakelhDunnezaErielhonanEsselenHo-ChunkHopiHupaInnuIowaIroquoisJicarillaKalapuyaKarukKatoKawKiowaKiskiackKoasatiKoyukonLaich-kwil-tachLakotaLenapeLipanLumbeeMahicanMakah . MaliseetMandanMattaponiMeherrinMescaleroMiccosukeeMi'kmaqMiwokModocMohawkMuscogee (Creek)NansemondNatchezNavajoNeutralNez PerceNomlakiNooksackNottowayNuu-chah-nulthOjibwaOhloneOmahaOsageOttawaPaiutePamunkeyPaspaheghPend d'OreillesPenobscotPomoPotawatomiPowhatanPuebloQuinaultRappanahockSahaptinSalinanSeminoleSenecaShawneeShoshoneSiouxStó:lōTakelmaThuleTlingitTongvaTsimshianTuscaroraUteWampanoagWappoWashitaw NationWashoeWintuWiyotYahiYakamaYuchiYuki   Mexico: AztecChichimecaCholHuicholLacandonMayaMixtecNahuatlTarahumaraTarascanTotonacYaquiZacatecoZapotec
Organizations Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of OklahomaAk-Chin Indian CommunityAlabama-Quassarte Tribal TownAmerican Indian MovementBridge River Indian BandCarcross/Tagish First NationCherokee NationCherokee Nation Warriors SocietyChickasaw NationChoctaw Nation of OklahomaConfederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of OregonCoushattaDelaware NationEastern Band of Cherokee IndiansEastern Shawnee Tribe of OklahomaIn-Shuck-ch NationHannahville Indian CommunityKamloops Indian BandKialegee Tribal TownKwanlin Dün First NationLillooet Tribal CouncilMississippi Band of Choctaw IndiansMowachaht/Muchalaht First NationsMusqueam Indian BandNisga'aQualla BoundaryPine Ridge ReservationShawnee TribeStockbridge-Munsee CommunityThlopthlocco Tribal TownConfederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian ReservationConfederated Tribes of SiletzUnited Keetoowah Band of Cherokee IndiansWhite Earth Indian Reservation
Personalities AnnawanAnna Mae Pictou-AquashHenry ArmstrongAttakullakullaAwashonksDennis BanksClyde BellecourtVernon BellecourtBob BengeBlack FoxBlue JacketElias BoudinotThe BowlWilliam Augustus BowlesJoseph BrantJohn BrownJoe ByrdFrank Arthur CalderCheeseekauChief LeschiWard ChurchillCornplanterCornstalkCrazy HorseNed ChristieCochiseDeganawidaDoubleheadEstanislaoChief Dan GeorgeGeronimoThe GlassGraham GreeneHandsome LakeHanging MawElijah HarperIra HayesHiawathaCharles R. HicksWilliam HicksIshiEdward JohnJohn JollyChief JosephJunaluskaKanagatuckoMary John, Sr.Mangas ColoradasLittle TurkeyLittle TurtleWilma MankillerMaquinnaMassasoitAlexander McGillivrayWilliam McIntoshRussell MeansN. Scott MomadayAdrien-Gabriel MoriceMadame MontourMoytoy of CiticoMoytoy of TellicoNahnebahwequaJoseph OnasakenratOconostotaOpechancanoughOsceolaOstenacoEly S. ParkerQuanah ParkerPathkillerLeonard PeltierPocahontasPocatelloPopéRed JacketAllie ReynoldsJohn RidgeJohn Rollin RidgeMajor RidgeRobbie RobertsonWill RogersJohn RossSacagaweaLouie SamSauganashSavanukahChief SeattleSequoyahShikellamyJay SilverheelsSitting BullNimrod Jarrett SmithSquantoWes StudiTahlonteeskeeTanaghrissonTatokaTecumsehTeedyuscungKateri TekakwithaTenskwatawaWilliam Holland ThomasJim ThorpeTiloukaiktTouch the CloudsJohn TrudellTsaliJames VannJoseph VannWamsuttaNancy WardWashakieStand WatieJohn WattsWeetamooWahunsenacawhFloyd Red Crow WestermanSarah WinnemuccaYonaguska
History Anglo-Cherokee WarApache WarsArikara WarBannock WarBattle of Blue LicksBattle of Burnt CornBattle of CarillonBattle of Claremore MoundBattle of Fallen TimbersBattle of Fort DuquesneBattle of Fort Oswego (1756)Battle of Fort William HenryBattle of Horseshoe BendBattle of Jumonville GlenBattle of Little BighornBattle of the MonongahelaBattle of NechesBattle of Lake OkeechobeeBattle of the Plains of AbrahamBattle of the WabashBlack Hawk WarBlack Hills WarCapture and rescue of Jemima BooneCayuse WarCharlottetown AccordCherokee Nation v. GeorgiaCherokee removalCheyenne WarChickamauga Wars (1776-1794)Code talkerColorado WarCreek WarDade MassacreDawes ActDunmore's WarFederal RoadFirst Anglo-Powhatan WarFort Loudoun (Tennessee)Fort Prince George (South Carolina)French and Indian WarGeorgia Land LotteryGoing Snake MassacreHistoric treaties of the Cherokee NationIndian Massacre of 1622Indian Reorganization ActIndian Removal ActIndigenous American genetic studiesKing Philip's WarKiowa-Comanche WarLong Walk of the NavajoModoc WarNickajack ExpeditionNorth-West RebellionNorthwest Indian WarOka CrisisOklahoma Indian Welfare ActPaiute WarPequot WarPontiac's RebellionRed Cloud's WarRed River RebellionRed River WarRed SticksRogue River WarsRoyal Proclamation of 1763Sand Creek MassacreSecond Seminole WarSeminole WarsSioux UprisingSpokane-Coeur d'Alene-Paloos WarState of MuskogeeState of SequoyahTecumseh's WarThird Seminole WarTimeline of Cherokee removalTrail of TearsTreaty of Bird’s FortTreaty of CussetaTreaty of Dancing Rabbit CreekTreaty of EastonTreaty of Fort Pitt (1778)Treaty of Fort StanwixTreaty of HolstonTreaty of HopewellTreaty of LochaberTreaty of New EchotaTreaty of Payne's LandingTuscarora WarWorcester v. GeorgiaWounded Knee IncidentWounded Knee MassacreYakima WarYamasee War
Linguistics AlgicAlseanCaddoanCoosanComecrudanChimakuanChinookanChumashanEskimo-AleutIroquoianKalapuyanKeresanKiowa-TanoanMaiduanMuskogeanNa-DenePalaihnihanPlateau PenutianPomoanSalishanShastanSiouan-CatawbanTsimshianicUtianUto-AztecanWakashanWintuanYokutsanYuki-WappoYuman-Cochimi
Culture Adena cultureAlachua cultureAlgonquian peoplesAngel MoundsAni-kutaniApalachee ProvinceAztalan State ParkBelle Glade cultureBlack drinkBlack Hawk State Historic SiteBuffalo jumpCades Pond cultureCahokiaCaloosahatchee cultureCamassiaCarlisle Indian Industrial SchoolCherokee ClansCherokee mythologyCherokee PathCherokee PhoenixChief Vann House Historic SiteChilhowee (Cherokee town)Chota (Cherokee town)Citico (Tellico archaeological site)Cochise TraditionCoosa chiefdomEtowah Indian MoundsFort Mountain State ParkGhost DanceGreat HiwasseeGreat Indian WarpathGreat TellicoGreen Corn CeremonyHistory of lacrosseHopewell cultureHolly Bluff SiteJoaraKeoweeKey MarcoKincaid Mounds State Historic SiteKings Crossing SiteKituwaLake Jackson Mounds Archaeological State ParkMedicine wheelMialoquo (Cherokee town)Mississippian cultureMoccasin BendMoundville Archaeological SiteNanih WaiyaNative American longhouseNew EchotaNikwasiNodena SiteOcmulgee National MonumentOld Stone Fort (Tennessee)Oshara TraditionOverhill CherokeePacahaParkin Archeological State ParkPeyotePinson MoundsPlaquemine cultureQuiggly holeRed Clay State ParkSoutheastern Ceremonial ComplexSpiro MoundsSwift Creek cultureTallassee (Cherokee town)TanasiThuja plicataTomotleyTown Creek Indian MoundTsenacommacahTuskegee (Cherokee town)Warriors Path State ParkWeeden Island cultureWerowocomocoWickliffe mounds; Windover Archaeological SiteWinterville SiteWriting-on-Stone Provincial Park

Distribution of Indigenous languages of North America

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