The Computing and Information Technology (IT) Portal
Information Technology (IT) or Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a broad subject which deals with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations; it can be considered a subdiscipline of computing. Particularly, IT is applied computing and employs the use of electronic computers, storage media, network administration, server maintenance, and computer software to secure, convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information.
Computing is an umbrella term describing any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers; subfields include Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Systems, Information Technology, and Software Engineering.
Computer networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with communication between two or more computer systems - a computer network involving at least two devices capable of being networked with at least one usually being a general purpose computing platform such as a PC. The devices can be separated by a few meters and connected wirelessly (e.g. via Bluetooth) or thousands of kilometers and connected ultimately by terabit backbone networks (on the global Internet). Computer networking is considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, and often also of computer science, information technology and computer engineering especially where these are concerned with parallel processing.
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Ethernet pron.: /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1985 as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies.
The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet used coaxial cable as a shared medium. Later the coaxial cables were replaced by twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches. Data rates were periodically increased from the original 10 megabits per second to 100 gigabits per second.
Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data so that damaged data can be detected and re-transmitted. As per the OSI model Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer.
Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of compatibility. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address
and Ethernet frame
format have influenced other networking protocols.
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