Portal:Information technology

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The Computing and Information Technology Portal

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Information Technology (IT) or Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a broad subject which deals with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations; it can be considered a subdiscipline of computing. Particularly, IT is applied computing and employs the use of electronic computers, storage media, network administration, server maintenance, and computer software to secure, convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information.

Computing is an umbrella term describing any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers; subfields include Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Systems, Information Technology, and Software Engineering.

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Computer networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with communication between two or more computer systems - a computer network involving at least two devices capable of being networked with at least one usually being a general purpose computing platform such as a PC. The devices can be separated by a few meters and connected wirelessly (e.g. via Bluetooth) or thousands of kilometers and connected ultimately by terabit backbone networks (on the global Internet). Computer networking is considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, and often also of computer science, information technology and computer engineering especially where these are concerned with parallel processing.

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Ethernet /ˈθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1985 as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies.

The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet used coaxial cable as a shared medium. Later the coaxial cables were replaced by twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches. Data rates were periodically increased from the original 10 megabits per second to 100 gigabits per second.

Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data so that damaged data can be detected and re-transmitted. As per the OSI model Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer.

Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of compatibility. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols.

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Subcategories of Computing:
Computer architecture - Computer benchmarks - Bioinformatics - Engineering Informatics  - Computer books - Computer companies - Computer engineering - Computer conferences - Computing mascots - Data privacy - Computer-aided design - Distributed computing - Embedded systems - Fictional computers - Computer graphics - Computer hardware - Human–computer interaction - Information systems - Information technology - Computer humor - Computer languages - Computer law - Legacy systems - Computational linguistics - Computer magazines - Multimedia - Computer networks - Parallel computing - Computing platforms - Retrocomputing - Computer science - Computer security - Software - Software engineering - Computing stubs - Technical communication - Coding theory - Underground computer groups

Subcategories of Information technology:
Data management - Information architects - Internet - Technical communication - Computer network security - System administration

Subcategories of Computer science:
Algorithms - Anti-patterns - Artificial intelligence - Compilers - Theory of computation - Computer science awards - Computer scientists - Computer vision - Cryptography - Data compression - Data structures - Information theory - Inter-process communication - Lambda calculus - Logic in computer science - Machine translation - Programming - Theoretical computer science - Type theory

Subcategories of Computer networking:
Internet - Internet protocols - Network management - Virtual private networks - Wireless networking

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