Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (help·info); Medinat Yisra'el; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ إِسْرَائِيل, Dawlat Isrā'īl), officially the State of Israel, is a small country in Western Asia on the southeastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Lebanon to the north, Syria and Jordan to the east, and Egypt and the Palestinian territories to the south-west and has a population of over seven million people. The capital of Israel is Jerusalem.
The Land of Israel was the birthplace of Judaism in the 10th century BCE or earlier and of Christianity at the beginning of the 1st century CE. The modern State of Israel was founded in 1948 with a UN mandate. Today, Israel is the world's only Jewish state, although its population is very diverse, including citizens from many ethnic and religious backgrounds. Israel is a parliamentary democracy with multi-party system and separation of powers, and is consistently rated as "Free" by Freedom House. In 2006 Reporters Without Borders ranked it 50th out of 168 countries in freedom of the press, but by 2010 increased restrictions meant that ranking had dropped to 93 out of 178 and Israel was no longer the highest-ranked of any country in the Middle East. Israel has a technologically advanced economy as well as a vibrant cultural life. Israel was ranked 15th out of 177 countries in the 2010 United Nations Human Development Index, the highest ranking in the Middle East and 3rd highest in all of Asia.
Jerusalem is Israel's capital, seat of government, and largest city, both in terms of population and area, with 732,100 residents in an area of 126 sq. km (49 sq. mi.). Located in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea, the city has a history that goes back as far as the 4th millennium BCE. The walled area of Jerusalem, which constituted the entire city until the 1860s, is now called the Old City, and was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1982. The Old City is home to several sites of key religious importance: the Temple Mount and its Western Wall for Jews, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians, and the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque for Muslims. Modern Jerusalem has grown up around the Old City, with its civic and cultural hub extending westward toward the country's urban center in Gush Dan. Today, Jerusalem remains a bone of contention in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem (captured in the 1967 Six-Day War) has been particularly controversial, as there are Palestinians who view this part of the city as the capital of a future Palestinian state. Thus, the status of a united Jerusalem as Israel's "eternal capital" has not been recognized by the United Nations and much of the international community.
Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe Raid or Operation Thunderbolt, was a counter-terrorism hostage-rescue mission carried out by the Israel Defense Force (IDF) at Entebbe Airport in Uganda on the night of July 3 and early morning of July 4, 1976. In the wake of the hijacking of Air France flight 139 and the hijackers' threats to kill the hostages if their prisoner release demands were not met, a plan was drawn up to airlift the hostages to safety. These plans took into account the likelihood of armed resistance from Ugandan military troops.
Originally codenamed Operation Thunderbolt (or Operation Thunderball) by the IDF, the operation was retroactively renamed Operation Yonatan in memory of the Sayeret Matkal commander Lieutenant Colonel Yonatan "Yoni" Netanyahu who was killed in action. Three hostages were killed and five Israeli commandos were wounded. A fourth hostage was murdered by Ugandan army officers at a nearby hospital. (more...)
, or Matsah
) Hebrew מַצָּה
, in Ashkenazi matzo
, and, in Yiddish
) is a cracker-like flatbread
made of white plain flour
. The dough is pricked in several places and not allowed to rise before or during baking, thereby producing a hard, flat bread
. It is similar in preparation to the Southwest Asian lavash
and the Indian chapati
Matza is the substitute for bread during the Jewish holiday of Passover, when eating chametz—bread and leavened products—is forbidden. Eating matza on the night of the seder is considered a positive mitzvah, i.e., a commandment. In the context of the Passover Seder meal, certain restrictions additional to the chametz prohibitions are to be met for the matza to be considered "mitzva matza", that is, matza that meets the requirements of the positive commandment to eat matza at the seder. (more...)
"America’s commitment to Israel’s security flows from a deeper place -- and that’s the values we share." - Barack Obama 
A view of Jerusalem in the early 20th century. The earliest verified reference to the city is in the Amarna letters, which date to the 14th century BCE. Over its long history, it has been controlled by Israelites, Judaeans, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mamluks, Turks, and the British before being split between Israel and Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem in the Six-Day War of 1967, and the city remains a core issue in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
- ...That Israel has the 4th longest life expectancy in the world: 82.0 years. More than the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany.
- ...That there are 26 official Muslim States, 18 official Christian States, but there is only 1 Jewish State - Israel.
- ...That relative to its size, Israel is the largest immigrant absorbing nation on Earth, it has absorbed 350% of its population in 60 years.
- ...That Israel has more Nobel Prizes per capita than the United States, France and Germany. It has more laureates, in real numbers, than India, Spain and China.
- ...That Israel's capital city, Jerusalem, is a holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
- ...That Israel is the only country in the world that entered the 21st century with a net gain of trees, made more remarkable by the fact that it is 60% desert.
- ...That 93% of Israeli homes use Solar energy for water heating, the highest percentage in the world.
- ...That Israel scientific research institutions are ranked 3rd in the world.
- ...That Israel is ranked 2nd in space sciences.
- ...That Israel is one of the ten countries in the world capable of launching its own satellites.
- ...That Israel produces more scientific papers per capita than any other nation by a large margin.
- ...That Israel has the 3rd highest rate of entrepreneurship amongst women in the world.
- ...That Israel has attracted the most venture capital investment per capita in the world, 30 times more than Europe.
- ...That Israel leads the world in patents for medical equipment.
- ...That Israel has more NASDAQ listed companies than any other country, besides the US. More than all of Europe, India, China and Japan combined.
- ...That in proportion to its population Israel has the largest number of startup companies in the world. In absolute numbers Israel has more startup companies than any other country besides the US.
- ...That Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world.
- ...That Israel is the 8th happiest country on Earth.
- ...That Israel has one of the best healthcare systems in the world according to OECD.
- ...That Israel is ranked 16th in the Human Development Index. It's the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and the third highest in Asia.
- ...That Israel is among the top three countries in cyber attack defense.
- ...That Israel is the country which offers the best conditions for clean technology startup companies after Denmark.
- ...That Israel has the highest ratio of university degrees to population in the world.
- ...That Israel is the second-most educated country after Canada.
- ...That Israel is the Middle East’s only "free" state, according to Freedom House annual report.
- ...The proportion of women among R&D workers in Israel is approximately 23.4%. This puts Israel in second place behind Denmark. Women earned 37% of all degrees granted in science and engineering in Israel, one of the highest proportions in the world.
- ...Israel produces more scientific papers per capita than any other nation by a large margin -109 per 10,000 people - as well as one of the highest per capita rates of patents filed.
- ...With an aerial arsenal of over 250 F-16s, Israel has the largest fleet of the aircraft outside of the US.
- ...Israel's $100 billion economy is larger than all of its immediate neighbors combined.
- ...Israel has more museums per capita than any other country.
- ...Israel has the highest percentage in the world of home computers per capita.
- ...Israel was the first nation in the world to adopt the Kimberly process, an international standard that certifies diamonds as "conflict free."
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Here are some tasks awaiting attention:
- Article requests : Belilios Family, HaRav Meir Shehenboim (Etz Hadar), HaRav Moshe Nehemia Cohenov, Banias Waterfall, Theatre of Israel, Hiking in Israel, Moriah Jerusalem Development Corporation, Radio in Israel Saharonim Prison
- Assess : Rate the Unassessed Israel-related articles and Unknown-importance Israel-related articles.
- Cleanup : Cleanup listing for this project is available. See also the list by category, the tool's wiki page and the index of WikiProjects.
- Copyedit : Palestinian views of the peace process, Cinema of Israel
- Expand : Guy Bavli, Middle East economic integration, Category:Companies of Israel, Allon Plan, Cellcom, Bezeq, Diamond industry in Israel, Geneva Accord, Zman Tel-Aviv, Ovda International Airport, El Al Flight 426, 2009 Tel Aviv gay centre shooting spree, Standard of Living in Israel, Sephardic Haredim, Rami Kleinstein, Levin Kipnis, Edna Arbel, Ayala Procaccia (from Hebrew), Way of the Patriarchs, International Volunteers Program of Magen David Adom, Four Mothers (movement)
- Geographical coordinates : Add geographic coordinates to articles in Category:Israel articles missing geocoordinate data
- Map : See discussion at: template:location map Israel
- NPOV : Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries
- Photo : Add images to articles in Category:Wikipedia requested photographs in Israel
- Stubs : Israel stubs
- Update : Carmel City
- Other : * Translate from Hebrew: Holyland (neighborhood), Iosif Adler, Isaac Leib Goldberg, Menahem Gnessin, Ohel theater, Ya'akov Zrubavel, Clal Center
- Translate to Hebrew: Guy Bavli, Gemara, Chief Rabbi, David Gans, Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, David Bar Hayim, Jacob of Lissa, Nosson Zvi Finkel, Bezalel Ashkenazi, Solomon Schechter, Av Beit Din, Howard Fast, Guardian of Zion Award, Martin Gilbert, Israeli wine, Uri Davis, Aaron Valero, Mordechai Weingarten
- (Partially) consolidate: Beit Guvrin National Park, Beit Guvrin, Israel, Bayt Jibrin, Eleutheropolis, Maresha. There is also a disambiguation page (Beit Guvrin)
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