The history of logic
is the study of the development of the science of valid inference (logic
). While many cultures have employed intricate systems of reasoning, and logical methods are evident in all human thought, an explicit analysis of the principles of reasoning was developed only in three traditions: those of China
, and Greece
. Of these, only the treatment of logic descending from the Greek tradition, particularly Aristotelian logic
, found wide application and acceptance in science and mathematics. The Greek tradition was further developed by Islamic logicians
and then medieval European
logicians. Not until the 19th century does the next great advance in logic arise, with the development of symbolic logic by George Boole
and its subsequent development into formal calculable logical systems by Gottlob Frege
and set theorists such as Georg Cantor
and Giuseppe Peano
, ushering in the Information Age
Logic was known as 'dialectic' or 'analytic' in Ancient Greece. The word 'logic' (from the Greek logos, meaning discourse or sentence) does not appear in the modern sense until the commentaries of Alexander of Aphrodisias, writing in the third century A.D.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS
(18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher
and advocate for social reform.
A prolific writer, he was also a populariser of philosophy and a commentator on a large variety of topics, ranging from very serious issues to those much less so. Continuing a family tradition in political affairs, he was a prominent anti-war activist, championing free trade between nations and anti-imperialism.