The United Mexican States, or commonly Mexico, is a nation located in North America, bound on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the North Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Central America, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. The United Mexican States is a constitutional republican federation of thirty-one states and a federal district, Mexico City, one of the most populous cities on Earth. With a population of almost 109 million, it is the 11th most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.
Human presence in Mexico has been shown to date back 40,000 years based upon ancient human footprints discovered in the Valley of Mexico (previous evidence substantiated indigenous inhabitants at 12,500 years ago). For thousands of years, Mexico was a land of hunter-gatherers. Around 9,000 years ago, ancient Mexicans domesticated corn and initiated an agricultural revolution, leading to the formation of many complex civilizations.
The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.
Hurricane Lane was the strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico since Hurricane Kenna of 2002. The thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Lane developed from a tropical wave on September 13 to the south of Mexico. It moved northwestward parallel to the coast of Mexico, and steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane attained peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and made landfall in the Mexican state of Sinaloa at peak strength. It rapidly weakened and dissipated on September 17, and later brought precipitation to southern Texas. Throughout its path, Lane resulted in four deaths and moderate damage. Damage was heaviest in Sinaloa where the hurricane made landfall, including reports of severe crop damage. Across Mexico, an estimated 4,320 homes were impacted by the hurricane, with about 248,000 people affected. Moderate flooding was reported in Acapulco, resulting in mudslides in some areas. Damage across the country totaled $2.2 billion (2006 MXN, $203 million (2006 USD).
Photo credit: Frank C. Müller
The Danza de los Voladores de Papantla (Dance of Papantla's flyers) is a ritualistic dance in Veracruz performed by the Totonac Indians. Five men, each representing the five elements of the indigenous world climb atop a pole, one of them stays on the pole playing a flute and dancing while the remaining four descend the pole with a rope tied by one of their feet. The rope unwraps itself 13 times for each of the four flyers, symbolizing the 52 weeks of the year.
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July in the history of Mexico
- July 29, 615 - Pacal the Great becomes ajaw of Palenque.
- July 1, 1520 - La Noche Triste, Hernán Cortés and his men flee Tenochitlan.
- July 17, 1566 - Bartolomé de las Casas dies.
- July 26, 1847 - The Caste War erutps in Yucatán.
- July 5, 1858, - Valentín Gómez Farías dies.
- July 15, 1867 - The republic is restored as the Second Mexican Empire collapses.
- July 18, 1872 - Benito Juárez dies.
- July 6, 1907 - Frida Kahlo is born.
- July 23, 1923 - Pancho Villa is assassinated in Parral, Chihuahua, in his car.
- July 27, 1928 - In the restaurant La Bombilla, Álvaro Obregón is assassinated by a catholic fanatic.
- July 6, 1988 - Carlos Salinas de Gortari wins the presidential elections that are widely considered to be fraudulent.
- July 2, 2000 - Vicente Fox is elected president, the first non PRI-candidate to do so since 1929.
- July 24, 2005 - Tropical Storm Gert makes landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico with 45 mph winds.