|Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire
was an army
that was organized by Osman I
tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia
in the late 14th century
. These horsemen became an irregular
force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timar
s in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots
. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I
organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yaya
s and the cavalry was known as müsellem
s. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries
for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam
as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
Monastery Agia Lavra, Peloponnese, 1821. "Germanos blessing the flag".
The Greek War of Independence (1821–1831), also known as the Greek Revolution (Greek: Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi, Ottoman Turkish: يؤنان ئسياني Yunan İsyanı, i.e. "Greek insurgence"), was a successful war waged by the Greeks to win independence for Greece from the Ottoman Empire. Independence was finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832 when Greece (Hellas) was recognized as a free country. The Greeks were the first of the subject peoples of the Ottoman Empire to secure recognition as a sovereign power. Greeks celebrate their independence day annually on March 25.
The Ottoman Empire had ruled almost all of Greece, with the exception of the Ionian Islands since its conquest of the Byzantine Empire over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. However, in the 18th and 19th centuries, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes".
It is important to note that the Greek Revolution was not an isolated event, but that there were numerous failed attempts at regaining independence throughout the history of the Ottoman occupation of Greece. For example, in 1603 there was an attempt in the Peloponnesos to restore the Byzantine Empire, and throughout the 17th century there was great resistance to the Turks in the Peloponnesus. Perhaps the most famous of these is the Orlov Revolt of 1770. The Mani Peninsula of Peloponnesos also continually resisted Turkish rule, defeating several Turkish incursions into the region, the most famous of which was the Ottoman Invasion of Mani (1780). (Read more...)
- ^ Kassis, "Mani's History", 29
Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان Sulaymān, Turkish: Süleyman; the long name is Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6 1566), was the tenth Sultan from the House of Osman of the Ottoman Empire, and the longest-serving one, reigning from 1520 to 1566. He is known to the West as Suleiman the Magnificent. In the Islamic world, he is known as the Lawgiver (in Turkish Kanuni; Arabic: القانونى, al-Qānūnī), a nickname stemming from his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system. Within the empire, Suleiman was known as a fair ruler and an opponent of corruption. He was a great patron of artists and philosophers, and was noted as one of the greatest Islamic poets, as well as an accomplished goldsmith.
Suleiman was considered one of the pre-eminent rulers of 16th-century Europe, a respected rival to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519–56), Francis I of France (1515–47), Henry VIII of England (1509–47), Sigismund II of Poland (1548–72), and Ivan IV of Russia (1530–84). Under his leadership, the Ottoman Empire reached its Golden Age and became a world power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary, laid the Siege of Vienna, and annexed most of the Middle East and huge territories in North Africa as far west as Algeria. For a short period, Ottomans achieved naval dominance in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf. The Ottoman Empire continued to expand for a century after his death.
So in Europe, we had empires. Everyone had them - France and Spain and Britain and Turkey! The Ottoman Empire, full of furniture for some reason. And the Austro-Hungarian Empire, famous for fuck all! Yes, all they did was slowly collapse like a flan in a cupboard.
The Ottoman-Egyptian Invasion of Mani
was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence
with three battles. The Maniots
fought against a combined Egyptian and Ottoman
army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
On March 17, 1821, the Maniots (residents of the center peninsula on the southern part of Peloponnese) declared war on the Ottoman Empire, preceding the rest of Greece in joining the revolution, by about a week. The various Greek forces won a quick string of victories, however, disputes broke out amongst the leaders and anarchy ensued. The Ottomans seized this chance and called for reinforcements from Egypt. The reinforcements came under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the leader of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. With the Greeks in disarray, Ibrahim ravaged the Peloponnese and after a brief siege he captured the city of Messolonghi. He then tried to capture Nauplio but he was driven back. He then turned his attention to the only place in the Peloponnese that was free: Mani.
Ibrahim tried to enter Mani from the north-east near Almiro on the June 21, 1826, but he was forced to stop at the fortifications at Vergas. His army of 7,000 men was held off by an army of 2,000 Maniots and 500 refugees from other parts of Greece. Due to Egyptian and Ottoman artillery, the disadvantaged Maniots managed to hold off the Ottomans. Ibrahim sent 1,500 men to try to land near Areopolis and go north to threaten the Maniot rear. This force was initially successful, however the women and old men of the area fought back and repelled them with heavy losses. When the Egyptians at Vergas heard that Theodoros Kolokotronis was coming from their rear they retreated.