Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

Topcu arma.jpg
Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yayas and the cavalry was known as müsellems. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
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Hunchak newsletter

Armenian rebellions in the Ottoman Empire covers the activities of ethnic Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire to obtain independence, similar to other non-Ottoman ethnic groups in the empire starting around 1880 to the period of the Armenian genocide (1915–1917).

During this time among the Armenian elite, idea of republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy, and the Millet system of the Ottoman Armenians underwent a restructuring, which led to the establishment of the Armenian National Assembly in 1863 and took over some of the regulations of temporal matters of the Ottoman Armenian Community from the Patriarchate. While it took World War I for the establishment of First Armenian Republic, the Armenians had oscillated between the ideas of republic and autonomous region in the empire during the history of Ottoman democracy with organizations like Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and Armenakan. The Empire tried to cover the social needs by creating the Tanzimat era, the development of Ottomanism and First Constitutional Era. However, the coexistence of the communities under Ottomanism proved to be a dysfunctional solution as did the Second Constitutional Era which also ignited the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. (Read more...)

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Skanderbeg

George Kastrioti (Albanian: Gjergj Kastrioti), 1405 - January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg (Albanian: Skënderbeu, Turkish: İskender Bey "Lord Alexander"), is one of the most prominent historical figures in the history of Albania and the Albanian people. He is also known as the Dragon of Albania and is the national hero of the Albanians. He is remembered for his struggle against the Ottoman Empire, through the work of his first biographer, Marin Barleti.

According to Edward Gibbon, Skanderbeg's father, Gjon Kastrioti, was a hereditary prince of a small districts of Mat, Krujë, Mirditë and Dibër. Gjon Kastrioti was among those who opposed the early incursion of Ottoman Bayezid I, however his resistance was ineffectual. The Sultan, having accepted his submissions, obliged him to pay tribute and to ensure the fidelity of local rulers, George Kastrioti and his three brothers were taken by the Sultan to his court as hostages. After his conversion to Islam, he attended military school in Edirne and led many battles for the Ottoman Empire to victory. For his military victories, he received the title Arnavutlu İskender Bey, (Albanian: Skënderbeu Shqiptari, English: Skanderbeg, the Albanian). In Turkish and Albanian this title means Lord Alexander the Albanian, comparing Kastrioti's military brilliance to that of Alexander the Great).

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So in Europe, we had empires. Everyone had them - France and Spain and Britain and Turkey! The Ottoman Empire, full of furniture for some reason. And the Austro-Hungarian Empire, famous for fuck all! Yes, all they did was slowly collapse like a flan in a cupboard.

Eddie Izzard, British comedian and actor on the Ottoman Empire

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The Ottoman-Egyptian Invasion of Mani was a campaign during the Greek War of Independence with three battles. The Maniots fought against a combined Egyptian and Ottoman army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt.

On March 17, 1821, the Maniots (residents of the center peninsula on the southern part of Peloponnese) declared war on the Ottoman Empire, preceding the rest of Greece in joining the revolution, by about a week. The various Greek forces won a quick string of victories, however, disputes broke out amongst the leaders and anarchy ensued. The Ottomans seized this chance and called for reinforcements from Egypt. The reinforcements came under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the leader of Egypt, Muhammad Ali. With the Greeks in disarray, Ibrahim ravaged the Peloponnese and after a brief siege he captured the city of Messolonghi. He then tried to capture Nauplio but he was driven back. He then turned his attention to the only place in the Peloponnese that was free: Mani.

Ibrahim tried to enter Mani from the north-east near Almiro on the June 21, 1826, but he was forced to stop at the fortifications at Vergas. His army of 7,000 men was held off by an army of 2,000 Maniots and 500 refugees from other parts of Greece. Due to Egyptian and Ottoman artillery, the disadvantaged Maniots managed to hold off the Ottomans. Ibrahim sent 1,500 men to try to land near Areopolis and go north to threaten the Maniot rear. This force was initially successful, however the women and old men of the area fought back and repelled them with heavy losses. When the Egyptians at Vergas heard that Theodoros Kolokotronis was coming from their rear they retreated.

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Ottoman Sultanate flag

Flag of the Ottoman Empire - (1453-1844).

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Topics

Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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Battle of al-Samn3rd Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)4th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)6th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)8th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)11th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)12th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)13th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)14th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)15th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)Ottoman-Turkoman warsGeorgian-Ottoman warsMuhammad Qasim Khan-e Qajar QuyunluHasan Ali MirzaKaikhusru MirzaAbul Husain MirzaJaafar Quli Khan-e Khajar QuyunluMirza Muhammad Khan-e Qajar DevehluMirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-e FarahaniAgha Vali KhanMirza Husain Khan QazviniMirza Muhammad Bakir KhanMuhammed Said of EgyptMuhammed Tawfik of EgyptHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed Ratib PashaIbrahim Hilmi PashaGuido von UsedomSayyid Ahmed Pasha as-SanussiMuhammed Pasha JahangiriMuhammed Said PashaMahmud Adam PashaMahmud Jalal ud-din PashaYahya Mansur Yeghen PashaMuhammed Nuri PashaIbrahim Fahmi Ahmed PashaHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed PashaZulkiful Ahmed PashaAli Khalid PashaAli Nur ud-din PashaMuhammed Kamal ud-din PashaDeli Fuad PashaMuhammed Tusun PashaAhmed Ayub PashaArif PashaAhmed Fathi PashaVelip PashaKasim Pasha JalimogluIbrahim Hilmi Ismail PashaHaji Muhammed Ali Pasha AliogluHasan Husni Pasha Bozcandali
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Battle of KeresztesBattle of MaritsaJajce Castle9th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)7th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire);
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