Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire

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Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

Topcu arma.jpg
Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yayas and the cavalry was known as müsellems. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
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Monastery Agia Lavra, Peloponnese, 1821. "Germanos blessing the flag".

The Greek War of Independence (1821–1831), also known as the Greek Revolution (Greek: Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi, Ottoman Turkish: يؤنان ئسياني Yunan İsyanı, i.e. "Greek insurgence"), was a successful war waged by the Greeks to win independence for Greece from the Ottoman Empire. Independence was finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832 when Greece (Hellas) was recognized as a free country. The Greeks were the first of the subject peoples of the Ottoman Empire to secure recognition as a sovereign power. Greeks celebrate their independence day annually on March 25.

The Ottoman Empire had ruled almost all of Greece, with the exception of the Ionian Islands since its conquest of the Byzantine Empire over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. However, in the 18th and 19th centuries, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes".

It is important to note that the Greek Revolution was not an isolated event, but that there were numerous failed attempts at regaining independence throughout the history of the Ottoman occupation of Greece. For example, in 1603 there was an attempt in the Peloponnesos to restore the Byzantine Empire, and throughout the 17th century there was great resistance to the Turks in the Peloponnesus.[1] Perhaps the most famous of these is the Orlov Revolt of 1770. The Mani Peninsula of Peloponnesos also continually resisted Turkish rule, defeating several Turkish incursions into the region, the most famous of which was the Ottoman Invasion of Mani (1780). (Read more...)

References

  1. ^ Kassis, "Mani's History", 29

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Piri Reis

Piri Reis (full name Hadji Muhiddin Piri Ibn Hadji Mehmed) (about 14651554 or 1555) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer born between 1465 and 1470 in Gallipoli on the Aegean coast of Turkey.

He is primarily known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation), a book which contains detailed information on navigation as well as extremely accurate charts describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea. He gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map (prepared in 1513) was discovered in 1929 at Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. The most surprising aspect was the presence of the Americas on an Ottoman map, making it the first Turkish map ever drawn of the Americas -- although not the first ever, which was drawn by pilot and cartographer Juan de la Cosa in 1500 and is conserved in the naval museum (Museo Naval) in Madrid.

The most striking characteristic of the first world map (1513) of Piri Reis, however, is the level of accuracy in positioning the continents (particularly the relation between Africa and South America) which was unparalleled for its time. Even maps drawn decades later did not have such accurate positioning and proportions; a quality which can be observed in other maps of Piri Reis in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation). The map of Piri Reis perfectly fits an azimuthal equidistant projection of the world centered in Cairo, and some believe it's also the oldest surviving map of Antarctica, despite being drawn more than three centuries before the official discovery of that continent.

In 1528 Piri Reis drew a second world map, of which a small fragment showing Greenland and North America from Labrador and Newfoundland in the north to Florida, Cuba and parts of Central America in the south still survives.

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So in Europe, we had empires. Everyone had them - France and Spain and Britain and Turkey! The Ottoman Empire, full of furniture for some reason. And the Austro-Hungarian Empire, famous for fuck all! Yes, all they did was slowly collapse like a flan in a cupboard.

Eddie Izzard, British comedian and actor on the Ottoman Empire

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Russian-Circassian-War.jpg
The Russian-Circassian War is the name given to the period of hostilities between the Russian Empire and the inhabitants of Circassia during the Russian invasion and occupation of the Circassian region. Circassia, (also known as Cherkessia in Russian) was a region in Caucasia which comprised the coastline and most of the interior of the current territory of Krasnodar Krai.[1] The historical region was named after the traditional inhabitants, the Circassians, Adyghe or Adiga, along with a number of smaller ethnic groups and tribes. The Russian–Circassian conflict took place from the initial arrival of Russian forces in 1763 to the signing of several Russian loyalty oaths by, among others, Circassian leaders on June 2, 1864, (May 21, O.S.), an event which signalled the end of the larger Caucasian War of which the Russian–Circassian conflict had become a part.

These loyalty oaths illustrated what had become a total occupation of the region by Russian forces, the result of over 100 years of conflict, which also involved the forced expulsion of millions of indigenous Circassians to areas of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Kosovo,[2] with some historians citing that up to 4,000,000 civilians perished as a result of the exodus.

References

  1. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO) Circassia article retrieved on April 4, 2007
  2. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO) Circassia article retrieved on April 4, 2007

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Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz I

Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz I - (1830-1876).

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Military &
political history
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Time span 14 years
Number of Sultans 2
See also Graphical timeline
1912
1913

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Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
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