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Missouri (Listeni/mɨˈzʊəri/ or /mɨˈzʊərə/) is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2009 estimated population of 5,987,580, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It comprises 114 counties and one independent city. Missouri's capital is Jefferson City. The four largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia. Missouri was originally acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase and became defined as the Missouri Territory. Part of the Missouri Territory was admitted into the union as the 24th state on August 10, 1821.

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Missouri mirrors the demographic, economic and political makeup of the nation with a mix of urban and rural culture. It has long been considered a political bellwether state. With the exceptions of 1956 and 2008, Missouri's results in U.S. presidential elections have accurately predicted the next President of the United States in every election since 1904. It has both Midwestern and Southern cultural influences, reflecting its history as a border state. It is also a transition between the Eastern and Western United States, as St. Louis is often called the "western-most Eastern city" and Kansas City the "eastern-most Western city." Missouri's geography is highly varied. The northern part of the state lies in dissected till plains while the southern part lies in the Ozark Mountains (a dissected plateau), with the Missouri River dividing the two. The confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers is located near St. Louis.

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The Frémont Emancipation was part of a military proclamation issued by Major General John C. Frémont (1813 – 1890) on August 30, 1861 in St. Louis, Missouri during the early months of the American Civil War. The proclamation placed the state of Missouri under martial law and decreed that all property of those bearing arms in rebellion would be confiscated, including slaves, and that confiscated slaves would subsequently be declared free. It also imposed capital punishment for those in rebellion against the federal government.

For President Abraham Lincoln the proclamation created a difficult situation, as he tried to balance the agendas of Radical Republicans who favored abolition and slave-holding Unionists in the American border states whose support was essential in keeping the states of Missouri, Kentucky and Maryland in the Union.

Nationwide reaction to the proclamation was mixed. Abolitionists enthusiastically supported the measure while conservatives demanded Frémont's removal. Seeking to reverse Frémont's actions and maintain political balance, Lincoln eventually ordered Frémont to rescind the edict on September 11, 1861. Lincoln then sent various government officials to Missouri to build a case for Frémont's removal founded on Frémont's alleged incompetence rather than his abolitionist views. On these grounds, Lincoln sent an order on October 22, 1861, removing Frémont from command of the Department of the West. Although Lincoln opposed Frémont's method of emancipation, the episode had a significant impact Lincoln, shaping his opinions on the appropriate steps towards emancipation and eventually leading to Lincoln's own Emancipation Proclamation.

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David Richard Freese (born April 28, 1983) is an American third baseman for the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball (MLB). For the Cardinals, Freese batted .545 with 12 hits in the 2011 National League Championship Series (NLCS), and set a MLB postseason record with 21 runs batted in (RBIs), earning the NLCS MVP Award, World Series MVP Award, and the Babe Ruth Award, naming him the MVP of the MLB postseason.

A star high school player, Freese declined a college baseball scholarship from the University of Missouri, a Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) baseball program in the Big 12 Conference. Needing a break from baseball, he sat out his freshman year of college before feeling a renewed urge to play the game. He transferred to St. Louis Community College-Meramec, a junior college, where he played for one season before transferring to the University of South Alabama.

The San Diego Padres drafted Freese out of South Alabama in the ninth round of the 2006 Major League Baseball Draft. Before the 2008 season, the Cardinals acquired Freese for Jim Edmonds. He made his MLB debut on Opening Day 2009 due to an injury to incumbent third baseman Troy Glaus. Despite suffering injuries in his minor league career and first two MLB seasons, Freese emerged as the Cardinals' best hitter during their 2011 World Series championship season.

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