From the 17th century, Oman had its own empire, and vied with Portugal and Britain for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to Iran, and modern day Pakistan, and as far south as Zanzibar. Oman has long-standing military and political ties with the United Kingdom and the United States, although it maintains an independent foreign policy.
Oman is an absolute monarchy in which the Sultan of Oman exercises ultimate authority, but its parliament has some legislative and oversight powers. As with other Arab States of the Persian Gulf, oil is the mainstay of the economy, providing a large proportion of GDP, although compared to its neighbours Oman is a modest producer. Agriculture and fishing are also important sources of income.
The exclave is on the Fujairah–Khor Fakkan road in the Emirate of Sharjah of the UAE and covers approximately 75 km² (29 sq mi). There are two exits to Madha on the Fujairah–Khorfakkan road. The boundary was settled in 1969.
Hashim has been fighting for a place on the first squad of the national team as a forward, but players such as Hassan Rabia, Badar Al-Maimani, and Imad Al-Hosni make it difficult for him to make many appearances. Although he has not made as many appearances as Al-Hosni or Al-Maimani, he was featured in many games as a substitute, and even frequently started. In the 2007 Gulf Cup of Nations, he scored a magnificent goal against a stunned Kuwait, which was thought by many as "the best goal in the competition". He was also on the squad in the 16th Gulf Cup in Kuwait and on the 19th Gulf Cup squad in Muscat.