Bhubaneswarpronunciation (help·info) (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya, "The Lord of the Universe") is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Orissa, India.Once the capital of ancient Kalinga, the city has a long history and is today a center for commerce and religious activity. However, the modern city of Bhubaneswar was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. It became the modern capital of the state of Orissa in 1948, a year after India gained its independence from Britain. Before Bhubaneswar, Cuttack was the capital of Orissa until 1947. Both Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are known as the "twin cities" of Orissa. With its vast variety of Hindu temples, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as the Temple City of India.
Bose was born in Cuttack in the then Bengal Presidency on January 23, 1897. He had his schooling in Cuttack and graduated from Ravenshaw College, Cuttack. He topped the province in the university exams. He also topped the Civil services examinations and was appointed mayor of Calcutta.
Bose participated in the Indian independence movement right from the 1930s. He elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms but resigned from the post following ideological conflicts with Mahatma Gandhi. Bose believed that Mahatma Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by the British authorities 11 times. At the onset of the war, he escaped from house arrest in India and travelled to the Soviet Union, Germany and Japan, seeking help in forming an anti-British alliance. With Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Indian National Army, formed from Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaysia, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. The Indian National Army, or the INA, as it was popularly known, followed the trail of Japanese soldiers and reached upto Kohima on the Indian border. However, they were stopped at the Indian border by troops of the British Indian army and faced a crushing defeat at the Battle of Imphal.
Bose is believed to have died under mysterious cricumstances on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash over Taiwan while flying on a mission to Japan.