As of 2009 the population was estimated at 6.3 million. The capital and largest city is Asunción. The official languages are Spanish and Guaraní, both being widely spoken in the country. Most of the population are mestizos.
The Guaraní have been living in Paraguay since prior to the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, when Paraguay became part of the Spanish colonial empire. Paraguay gained independence from Spain in 1811.
Paraguay campaign (1810-1811): A militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, made its way up to the Intendency of Paraguay. The first battle was fought in Campichuelo and the Argentines claimed victory. However, they were completely vanquished in the subsequent battles of Paraguarí and Tacuarí. This campaign ended in a military failure, but Paraguay broke its links with the Spanish crown just two months after Belgrano's withdrawal.
José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia B. (1766-01-06)January 6, 1766 – d. September 20, 1840(1840-09-20) (aged 74)
Dr. José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco (January 6, 1766 – September 20, 1840) was the first leader of Paraguay following its independence from Spain. He ran the country with no outside interference and little outside influence from 1814 to 1840.
Although his father, a native of São Paulo, was simply García Rodríguez Francia, the dictator inserted de to style himself "Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco". He is often referred to simply as "Dr. Francia".