Portal:Photography

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The first photograph was an image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce on a polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea but for centuries images had been projected onto surfaces - artists used the camera obscura and camera lucida to trace scenes as early as the 16th century. These early "cameras" did not fix an image, but only projected images from an opening in the wall of a darkened room onto a surface, turning the room into a large pinhole camera.

The advent of photography, from the Ancient Greek words φως phos ("light"), and γραφη graphê ("stylus", "paintbrush") or γραφω graphō (the verb, "I write/draw"), together meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", has gained the interest of scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion (1887). Artists are equally interested in these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used to preserve favorite memories and as a source of entertainment.

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The Colosseum in Rome.

Architectural photography is a photographic genre used to capture structures such as buildings and bridges. This photograph of the Colosseum in Rome was taken at dusk using a 50mm prime lens. Photo Credit: commons:User:Diliff

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Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1795
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (March 7, 1765 – July 5, 1833) was a French inventor, most noted as a pioneer in photography. (His surname is often spelled without the accent.)

The first successful permanent photograph was produced by Niépce. He began experimenting with processes to set optical images in 1793. Some of his early experiments produced images, but they faded rapidly. He was said to have first produced long lasting images in 1824.

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  • ...that the first real zoom lens, which retained near-sharp focus while the effective focal length of the lens assembly was changed, was patented in 1902 by Clile C. Allen (U.S. Patent 696,788)?

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Zoom lens
A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements with the ability to vary its focal length, as opposed to a prime lens which has a fixed focal length. They are commonly used with still, video, and motion picture cameras, some binoculars and telescopes, and other optical instruments.

The first real zoom lens, which retained near-sharp focus while the effective focal length of the lens assembly was changed, was patented in 1902 by Clile. C. Allen (U.S. Patent 696,788). The first industrial production was the Bell and Howell Cooke "Varo" 40-120mm Lens for 35mm movie cameras introduced in 1932. The Kilfitt 36-82mm/2.8 Zoomar introduced in 1959 was the first zoom lens in regular production for still 35mm photography.

Since then, advances in optical design, particularly the use of computers for optical ray tracing, has made the design and construction of zoom lenses much easier, and they are now used widely in professional and amateur photography.

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Photography Topics

Concepts and Principles Photography forms Photography techniques
Camera and photography equipment Miscellaneous Photographers and photographs

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Genres of photography Aerial photography | Astrophotography | Aviation photography | Candid photography | Chronophotography | Color photography | Commercial photography | Computational photography (artistic) | Digiscoping | Fashion photography | Fine art photography | Glamour photography | Infrared photography | Kirlian photography | Kite aerial photography | Macro photography | Nature photography | New Topography | Night photography | Non-nude photography | Panoramic photography | Portrait photography | Post-mortem photography | Rollout photography | Secret photography | Still life photography | Stock photography | Straight photography | Street photography | Strip aerial photography | Subminiature photography | Ultraviolet photography | Underwater photography | Vernacular photography | War photography | Wedding photography | Wildlife photography
Photographic techniques Afocal photography | Airbrush | Background light | Backlighting (lighting design) | Bracketing | Burned (image) | Chemography | Color correction | Composograph | Contre-jour | Deep focus | Double exposure | Dutch angle | Exposure compensation | Fill flash | Fill light | Framing | Hand-colouring | Harris Shutter | High dynamic range imaging | High-key lighting | Infinity cove | Kallitype | Key light | Kite aerial photography | Lenticular printing | Light painting | Manual focus | Multiple exposure | Perspective correction | Photo manipulation | Photogram | Photographic print toning | Push printing | Push processing | Rephotography | Rule of thirds | Sandwich printing | Shallow focus | Simplicity | Slit-scan photography | Stereoscopy | Stopping down | Sunny 16 rule | Three-point lighting | Tinted photograph | Zone System
Photographers Fictional photographers | Magnum photographers | Photographers by nationality | Photojournalists | Pioneers of photography | Stock photographers | Photographic studios | Photographers by subject | Photographers who committed suicide | Photographer stubs

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