The pipe organ is a musicalinstrument that produces sound by admitting air (wind) through a series of different sized pipes. This process is controlled through the use of keyboards. One of the oldest musical instruments—its origins can be traced back to the Greeks—the organ is capable of sustaining sound for as long as the key is depressed, in contrast to other keyboard instruments, such as the piano and harpsichord.
Pipe organs range in size from portable instruments with only a few dozen pipes to very large organs with tens of thousands of pipes, causing Mozart to describe it as the king of instruments. (more...)
Eight-foot pitch is a term common to the organ and the harpsichord. An organ pipe, or a harpsichord string, designated as eight-foot pitch is sounded at standard, ordinary pitch. For example, the A above middle C in eight-foot pitch would be sounded at 440 Hz. (or at some similar value, depending on how concert pitch was set at the time and place the organ or harpsichord was made).
Eight-foot pitch may be contrasted with four-foot pitch (one octave above the standard), two-foot pitch (two octaves above the standard), and sixteen foot pitch (one octave below the standard). The origin of all these terms is based on the fact that, all else being equal, a pipe or string that is half the length of another will vibrate at a pitch one octave higher. The length "eight feet" is based on the length of an organ pipe sounding the pitch two octaves below middle C.
This Spanish trumpet reed stop is of a class mounted en chamade. These stops are mounted horizontally rather than vertically in the front of the organ case, projecting out into the church. As a result they will sound louder than other stops operating on the same wind pressure.
... that the recently restored organ of St Botolph's Aldgate has been described as the oldest church organ in the United Kingdom. Although there are older pipes and cases, this is the oldest collection of pipes in their original positions on their original wind chests.
César Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890)—a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France—was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century.
In 1858, he became organist at the recently-consecrated basilica of Sainte Clotilde. His first set of organ compositions, however, was not published until 1868, when he was 46 years old, though it contains one of his finest organ pieces, the Grande Pièce Symphonique. From 1872 to his death he was Professor of Organ at the Paris Conservatoire where his pupils included Vincent d'Indy, Ernest Chausson, Louis Vierne, and Henri Duparc. As an organist he was particularly noted for his skill in improvisation, and it is on the basis of only twelve major organ works that Franck is by many considered the greatest organ composer after J.S. Bach. His works were some of the finest organ pieces to come from France in over a century, and laid the groundwork for the French symphonic organ style. The 25-minute "Grande Pièce Symphonique" paved the way for the organ symphonies of Widor, Louis Vierne, and Marcel Dupré.