Poetry (from the Greek "ποίησις," poiesis, a "making" or "creating") is an art form in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, notional and semantic content. Poetry has a long history, and early attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the various uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Poetry often uses condensed forms and conventions to reinforce or expand the meaning of the underlying words or to invoke emotional or sensual experiences in the reader, as well as using devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm to achieve musical or incantatory effects.
( [ˈr̥apncɛls ˌsaːɣa] (help·info)
) is one of the Icelanders' sagas
. It tells of struggles between chieftains and farmers in the east of Iceland in the 10th century. The eponymous
main character, Hrafnkell, starts out his career as a fearsome duellist
and a dedicated worshipper of the god Freyr
. After suffering defeat, humiliation, and the destruction of his temple
, he becomes an atheist
. His character changes and he becomes more peaceful in dealing with others. After gradually rebuilding his power base for several years, he achieves revenge against his enemies and lives out the rest of his life as a powerful and respected chieftain. The saga has been interpreted as the story of a man who arrives at the conclusion that the true basis of power does not lie in the favor of the gods but in the loyalty of one's subordinates.
The saga remains widely read today and is appreciated for its logical structure, plausibility, and vivid characters. For these reasons, it has served as a test case in the dispute on the origins of the Icelandic sagas.
Mário Raul de Morais Andrade
(October 9, 1893 – February 25, 1945) was a Brazilian poet
, art historian
, and photographer
. One of the founders of Brazilian modernism
, he virtually created modern Brazilian poetry with the publication of his Paulicéia Desvairada
) in 1922. He has had an enormous influence on Brazilian literature in the 20th and 21st centuries, and as a scholar and essayist—he was a pioneer of the field of ethnomusicology
—his influence has reached far beyond Brazil.
Andrade was the central figure in the avant-garde movement of São Paulo for twenty years. Trained as a musician and best known as a poet and novelist, Andrade was personally involved in virtually every discipline that was connected with São Paulo modernism, and became Brazil's national polymath.
|Sonnet 66 by William Shakespeare
Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
As, to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity,
And purest faith unhappily forsworn,
And guilded honour shamefully misplaced,
And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,
And right perfection wrongfully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tied by authority,
And folly doctor-like controlling skill,
And simple truth miscall'd simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill:
Tired with all these, from these would I be gone,
Save that, to die, I leave my love alone.
||I don't think the mystical experience can be verbalized. When the ego disappears, so does power over language.
—W. H. Auden
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by an open configuration of the vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, which are characterized by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the vocal tract. A vowel is also understood to be syllabic: an equivalent open but non-syllabic sound is called a semivowel.
In all languages, vowels form the nucleus or peak of syllables, whereas consonants form the onset and (in languages which have them) coda. However, some languages also allow other sounds to form the nucleus of a syllable, such as the syllabic l in the English word table [ˈteɪ.bl̩] (the stroke under the l indicates that it is syllabic; the dot separates syllables), or the r in the Czech word vrba [vr̩.ba] "willow".
- For a more comprehensive treatment of poetry topics, see Outline of poetry.
|By culture, nationality or language
||American, Anglo-Welsh, Arabic, Australian, Bengali, Biblical, British, Canadian, Chinese, Cornish, English, Old English, Finnish, French, Greek, Hebrew, Indian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Jèrriais, Kannada, Korean poetry, Latin American, Latino, Manx, Old Norse, Ottoman, Pakistani, Persian, Scottish, Serbian, Slovak, Spanish, Urdu, Welsh
|Lists of poets
||Albanian, Afrikaans, Arabic, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, English, French, German, Ancient Greek, Modern Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Indian, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latin, Maltese, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Pushtu, Romanian, Russian, Slovakian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkic, Urdu, Welsh, Yiddish
|Schools of poetry
||Akhmatova's Orphans, Alexandrian, The Beats, Black Arts Movement, Black Mountain poets, British Poetry Revival, Cairo poets, Cavalier poets, Confessionalists, Cyclic Poets, Dada, Deep image, Della Cruscans, Dolce Stil Novo, Dymock poets, The poets of Elan, Flarf poetry, Fugitives, Garip, Generation of '98, Generation of '27, George-Kreis, Georgian poets, Goliard, Graveyard poets, The Group, Harvard Aesthetes, Imagism, Lake Poets, Language poets, Martian poetry, Metaphysical poets, Misty Poets, Modernist poetry, The Movement, Négritude, New Apocalyptics, New Formalism, New York School, Objectivists, Others group, Parnassian poets, La Pléiade, Rhymers' Club, Rochester Poets, San Francisco Renaissance, Scottish Renaissance, Sicilian School, Sons of Ben, Southern Agrarians, Spasmodic poets, Sung poetry, Surrealism, Symbolism, Uranian poetry
||Poetry by nation or language, Ethnopoetics, Modernist poetry in English, Poems, Poetic form, Poetry awards, Poetry collections, Prosody, Spoken word, Years in poetry, Poetry stubs
- Help write articles for Shakespeare's Sonnets (click on any one on the template at the bottom of the page).
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