Poetry (from the Greek "ποίησις," poiesis, a "making" or "creating") is an art form in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, notional and semantic content. Poetry has a long history, and early attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the various uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Poetry often uses condensed forms and conventions to reinforce or expand the meaning of the underlying words or to invoke emotional or sensual experiences in the reader, as well as using devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm to achieve musical or incantatory effects.
The history of Irish poetry includes the poetries of two languages, one in Irish and the other in English. The complex interplay between these two traditions, and between both of them and other poetries in English, has produced a body of work that is both rich in variety and difficult to categorise.
The earliest surviving poems in Irish date back to the 6th century and the first known poems in English from Ireland date from the 14th century. Although some cross-fertilization between the two language traditions has always happened, the final emergence of an English-language poetry that had absorbed themes and models from Irish did not appear until the 19th century. This culminated in the work of the poets of the Celtic Revival at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.
Edward Estlin Cummings
(October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), abbreviated E. E. Cummings
, was an American poet
, and playwright
. His publishers and others have sometimes echoed the unconventional capitalization in his poetry by writing his name in lower case, as e. e. cummings
; Cummings himself did not approve of this rendering. Cummings is probably best known for his poems and their unorthodox usage of capitalization, layout, punctuation and syntax. There is extensive use of lower case; word gaps, line breaks and gaps appear in unexpected places; punctuation marks are omitted or misplaced, interrupting sentences and even individual words; grammar and word order are sometimes strange.
|Sonnet 66 by William Shakespeare
Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
As, to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimm'd in jollity,
And purest faith unhappily forsworn,
And guilded honour shamefully misplaced,
And maiden virtue rudely strumpeted,
And right perfection wrongfully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tied by authority,
And folly doctor-like controlling skill,
And simple truth miscall'd simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill:
Tired with all these, from these would I be gone,
Save that, to die, I leave my love alone.
||A poem begins in delight and ends in wisdom.
The word thou (pronounced IPA [ðaʊ]) is mostly archaic, functioning as the second person singular pronoun in English and having been replaced in almost all contexts by you. Thou is the nominative form; the oblique/objective form is thee (functioning as both accusative and dative), and the possessive is thy or thine. Almost all verbs following "thou" have the endings -st or -est; e.g., "thou goest". In Middle English, thou was sometimes abbreviated by writing a Wynn-shaped letter Thorn with a small u above it.
Originally, "thou" was simply the singular counterpart to the plural pronoun "ye," descended from an ancient Indo-European root. In imitation of the French practice, "thou" was later used to express intimacy, familiarity, or even disrespect while another pronoun, "you" was used for formal circumstances. See French "vous" and Dutch "U". After "thou" fell out of fashion, it was primarily retained in fixed rituals, so that it eventually came to connote formality and solemnity. "Thou" persists, sometimes in altered form, in regional dialects of England and Scotland.
- For a more comprehensive treatment of poetry topics, see Outline of poetry.
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|Lists of poets
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|Schools of poetry
||Akhmatova's Orphans, Alexandrian, The Beats, Black Arts Movement, Black Mountain poets, British Poetry Revival, Cairo poets, Cavalier poets, Confessionalists, Cyclic Poets, Dada, Deep image, Della Cruscans, Dolce Stil Novo, Dymock poets, The poets of Elan, Flarf poetry, Fugitives, Garip, Generation of '98, Generation of '27, George-Kreis, Georgian poets, Goliard, Graveyard poets, The Group, Harvard Aesthetes, Imagism, Lake Poets, Language poets, Martian poetry, Metaphysical poets, Misty Poets, Modernist poetry, The Movement, Négritude, New Apocalyptics, New Formalism, New York School, Objectivists, Others group, Parnassian poets, La Pléiade, Rhymers' Club, Rochester Poets, San Francisco Renaissance, Scottish Renaissance, Sicilian School, Sons of Ben, Southern Agrarians, Spasmodic poets, Sung poetry, Surrealism, Symbolism, Uranian poetry
||Poetry by nation or language, Ethnopoetics, Modernist poetry in English, Poems, Poetic form, Poetry awards, Poetry collections, Prosody, Spoken word, Years in poetry, Poetry stubs
- Help write articles for Shakespeare's Sonnets (click on any one on the template at the bottom of the page).