The Punjab (Shahmukhi: پنجاب Punjab.ogg (help·info)) is a province of Pakistan. It is the country's most populous region with about 56% of Pakistan's total population. The Punjab is home to the Punjabis and various other groups. Neighbouring areas are Sindh to the south, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, Pakistan-administered Kashmir, Islamabad to the north, and the Indian Punjab to the east. The main languages are Punjabi and Saraiki and their dialects are Mewati, Potowari. The provincial capital is Lahore. Punjab has been known as the "Land of the Five Rivers" since Vedic times. The name Punjab literally translates from the Persian words Panj (پنج) , meaning Five, and Āb (آب) meaning Water. Thus Punjab can be translated as (the) Five Waters - and hence the Land of the Five Rivers, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and the Beas. These five rivers are all the tributaries of the Indus River. The province was founded in its current form in May 1972.
The National College of Arts Lahore , usually referred to by its acronym NCA, is a famous old college in Lahore, Pakistan. Like all old institutions, the National College of Arts, has a historical tradition. Much of its present tone was set long ago when it was known as the Mayo School of Arts. Gazetteers written about the city of Lahore in 1915 describe the work being done at the school as one of the cultural highlights of the urban centre. The Mayo School of Industrial Art was set up to commemorate Lord Mayo, the British Viceroy of India, who was assassinated in 1872. Lockwood Kipling, a teacher of painting and sculpture working then in a Parsi School in Bombay, was appointed its first Principal. Additionally, he was handed over the charge as the Curator of the Lahore Museum. The Museum and the School were conceived together. Funds were raised through a special levy on the population of the Punjab province for the Golden Jubilee of the British Queen in 1887. The flooding of the Punjab with British goods from Manchester bankrupted the local industry by the turn of the century. Popular taste was weaned from its cultural roots, which resulted directly in the death of art and craft. 40,000 cotton workers and 900 weavers became jobless. Cotton printing from this city and once prized in far-off Switzerland and Holland, was badly hit by the shoddy machine-made varieties from Manchester. Cottage industry in woollen and silk cloth was deliberately wiped out. The object was a British institution with a museum, a library and lecture rooms for teaching indigenous crafts to celebrate the Queen's jubilee. (More...)
Foot binding was the custom of binding the feet of young girls painfully tight to prevent further growth. The practice probably originated among court dancers in the early Song dynasty, but spread to upper class families and eventually became common among all classes. The tiny narrow feet were considered beautiful and to make a woman's movements more feminine and dainty.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد على جناح (help·info)) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. He is officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم — "Great Leader") and Baba-e-Qaum ("Father of the Nation.") His birth and death anniversaries are national holidays in Pakistan.
Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslim unity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact with the Muslim League; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. Differences with Mohandas Gandhi led Jinnah to quit the Congress and take charge of the Muslim League. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India. His proposals failed amid the League's disunity, driving a disillusioned Jinnah to live in London for many years.
Several Muslim leaders persuaded Jinnah to return to India in 1934 and re-organise the League. Tempered by the failure to build coalitions with the Congress, Jinnah embraced the goal of creating a separate state for Muslims as in the Lahore Resolution. The League won most Muslim seats in the elections of 1946, and Jinnah launched the Direct Action campaign of strikes and protests to achieve "Pakistan", which degenerated into communal violence across India. The failure of the Congress-League coalition to govern the country prompted both parties and the British to agree to partition. As Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah led efforts to rehabilitate millions of refugees, and to frame national policies on foreign affairs, security and economic development. (more...)
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- December 27, 2007 Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto is assassinated in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (BBC World)
- November 29, 2007 Pervez Musharraf is sworn in as the President of Pakistan for a second term, this time as a civilian. (ABC News Australia)
- November 28, 2007
- November 26, 2007 Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif announces he will file nomination papers in the Pakistani general election, 2008. However, he will not serve as Prime Minister under the current President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf. (BBC)
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