The Holy Qur’an (pronounced [qurˈʔaːn]; Arabic: القرآن al-qur’ān, literally “the recitation”) is the central religious verbal text of Islam,also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, Qur’ān, or Al-Qur’ān. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the verbal book of divine guidance and direction for mankind, and consider the original Arabic verbal text to be the final revelation of God
Islam holds that the Qur’an was repeatedly revealed from Allah to Muhammad orally through the angel Jibrīl (Gabriel) over a period of approximately twenty-three years, beginning in 610 CE, when he was forty, and concluding in 632 CE, the year of his death. Followers of Islam further believe that the Qur’an was memorized, recited and written down by Muhammad's companions after every revelation dictated by Muhammad. Most of Muhammad's companions, tens of thousands, learned the Qur’an by heart, repeatedly recited in front of Muhammad for his approval or the approval of other Sahaba Muhammad approved and also compiled it in written form while he was alive. Muslim tradition agrees that although the Qur’an was authentically memorized completely by tens of thousands verbally, the Qur’an was still established textually into a single book form shortly after Muhammad's death by order of the first CaliphAbu Bakr suggested by his future successor Umar. Hafsa, Muhammad's widow and Umar's daughter, was entrusted with that Quran text after the second Caliph Umar died. When Uthman, the third Caliph, started noticing differences in the dialect of the Qur’an, he requested Hafsa to allow him to use the Qur’an text in her possession to be set as the standard dialect, the Quraish dialect aka Fus'ha (Modern Standard Arabic). Before returning that Qur'an text to Hafsa, Uthman immediately made several copies of Abu Bakar's Qur’anic compilation and ordered all other texts to be burned. This process of formalization of the orally transmitted text to Abu Bakar's Qur'anic text is known as the "Uthmanic recension". The present form of the Qur’an text is accepted by most scholars as the original version compiled by Abu Bakr.
Muslims consider the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, as the word of God and a miracle. The Qur'an claims that it has been created miraculously as a revelation from Allah (God), as a perfect copy of what was written in heaven and existed there from all eternity. Therefore the verses of the book are referred to as ayat, which also means "a sign" in the Arabic language. It is believed that the Qur'an as we know it today, is the same as was revealed to Muhammad in the year 610. The Qur'an itself gives an open challenge for anyone who denies its claimed divine origin to produce a text like it. [Quran17:88][11:12–13][2:23]
Critics believe that Muhammad was influenced by older Jewish and Christian traditions, and therefore included many of the wonders known from the Bible in the Qur'an. On the other hand, the Qur'an states that Muhammed was illiterate and neither read a book nor wrote a book [Quran29:48] and that he did not know about past events. [Quran3:44][11:49][28:44]
The miracles in the Qur’an can be classified into three distinct categories: inimitability, scientific miracles and prophecies.