A seamount is a mountain rising from the oceanseafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. These are typically formed from extinct volcanoes, that rise abruptly and are usually found rising from a seafloor of 1,000–4,000 meters depth. They are defined by oceanographers as independent features that rise to at least 1,000 meters above the seafloor. The peaks are often found hundreds to thousands of meters below the surface, and are therefore considered to be within the deep sea. An estimated 30,000 seamounts occur across the globe, with only a few having been studied. However, some seamounts are also unusual. For example, while the summits of seamounts are normally hundreds of meters below sea level, the Bowie Seamount rises from a depth of about 3,000 meters to within 24 meters of the sea surface.
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Pillow lava is the type of lava that spews from seamounts, so named from its shape. Most commonly Basalt, its shape originates from the tackiness of the lava and the high cooling rate as it meets the extremely cold deep-water ocean.
Bowie Seamount is a large submarine volcano in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, located 180 km (112 mi) west of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. The volcano has a flat-topped summit (thus making it a guyot) rising about 3,000 m (9,843 ft) above the seabed, to 24 m (79 ft) below sea level. It lies at the southern end of a long underwater volcanic mountain range called the Pratt-Welker or Kodiak-Bowie Seamount chain, stretching from the Aleutian Trench in the north almost to the Queen Charlotte Islands in the south.
Bowie Seamount lies on the Pacific Plate, a large segment of the Earth's surface which moves in a northwestern direction under the Pacific Ocean. Its northern and eastern flanks are surrounded by neighboring submarine volcanoes; Hodgkins Seamount on its northern flank and Graham Seamount on its eastern flank.