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Sindh (pronounced [sɪnd̪ʱ]: Sindhi: سنڌ, Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, large numbers of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can also be found. Sindh is bounded to the west by the Balochistan,to the East by India, to the north by Punjab, and to the south by the Arabian Sea. The main language spoken is Sindhi by about 40 million people. The name is derived from the Indus River that runs through the entire North to South length of Sindh. This river was known to the ancient Iranians in Avestan as Harauhuti, in Sanskrit as Sarasvati, to Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BC) as Sinda, to the Greeks as Indos, to the Romans as Indus, to the Persians as Ab-e-sind, to the Pashtuns as "Abasin", to the Arabs as Al-Sind, to the Chinese as Sintow, and to the Javanese as the Santri.The boundaries of ancient Sindh extended from Kashmir to Makran coasts of current province of Baluchistan in Pakistan.
The current province of Sindh and the people inhabiting the region had been designated after the river known in ancient times as the Sindhu River, now also known as the Indus River. In Sanskrit, síndhu means "river, stream", and refers to the Indus river in particular. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind from the word Sindh and when the British arrived here in the 17th century, they followed that example and applied the name to the entire subcontient calling it India, once again from the word Sindh.
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization[n 1] primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. Geographically, the civilization was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization in the world. There is an Indus Valley site on the Oxus river at Shortugai and extending towards Alamgirpur on the Hindon river located only 28 km from Delhi, India.
The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products, seal carving), and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses.
The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was the one at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). Excavation of Harappan sites have been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra river and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Kalibanga, and Rakhigarhi. (More...)
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو, IPA: [zʊlfɪqɑːɾ ɑli bʱʊʈːoː]) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979 on charges of murder. His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto, would also serve as Prime minister, while his son Murtaza Bhutto, served as member of Parliament of Pakistan.
Educated at the University of California, Berkeley, in the United States and the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, Bhutto was noted for his progressive economic initiatives, industrialization, education, energy and foreign policy, and his intellectualism. In addition to national security issues, Bhutto promoted his policies on the nationalization, health care, and social reforms. Under his premiership, Pakistan's Parliament gave approval and passed unanimously the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, a supreme law that provides a parliamentary system to Pakistan, strengthened the Sino-Pak and Saudi-Pak relations, recognition of East-Pakistan as Bangladesh, and hosted the second Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1974 where he delegated and invited leaders from the Muslim world to Lahore, Punjab Province of Pakistan. In July 1972, Bhutto successfully proceeded the Shimla treaty, signed with Indira Gandhi of India, brought 93,000 Prisoners of War back to Pakistan, and secured 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) held by India. In January 20 of 1972, weeks after the Indo-Pakistani 1971 winter war, Bhutto orchestrated, authorized, and administrated the scientific research on nuclear weapons; for this, he is colloquially known in the world as "Father of the Pakistan's nuclear deterrent programme". (More...)
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