Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). This includes application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to perform a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run properly, by interfacing with hardware and with other software. Software also acts as an interface between the hardware like processor(s) and user(s).
(Pictured right: A photo montage created in Adobe Photoshop from various images and editing)
Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader for commercial bitmap and image manipulation, and, aside from Adobe Acrobat, is the best-known piece of software produced by Adobe Systems. It is considered the industry standard in most jobs related to the use of visual elements. It has been described as "an industry standard for graphics professionals" and was one of the early "killer apps" on Macintosh.
Photoshop is available for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Mac OS; versions up to Photoshop 9.0 can also be used with other operating systems such as Linux using software such as CrossOver. Past versions of the program were ported to the SGI IRIX and Sun Solaris platforms, but official support for this port was dropped after version 3.
The current (12th) version of the program, Photoshop CS5, was released on April 12, 2010. "CS" reflects its integration with other Creative Suite products, and the number "5" represents it as the fifth version released since Adobe re-branded its products under the CS umbrella in 2003. Photoshop CS5 features additions such as three dimensional brushes and warping tools.
Linus Torvalds (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer and hacker, best known for having initiated the development of the open source Linux kernel. He later became the chief architect of the Linux kernel, and now acts as the project's coordinator. He also created the revision control system Git.
After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996, Torvalds accepted a position at the company in California, where he would work from February 1997 to June 2003. He then moved to the Open Source Development Labs, which has since merged with the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, under whose auspices he continues to work. In June 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Portland, Oregon, to be closer to the OSDL's Beaverton, Oregon–based headquarters.
From 1997 to 1999, he was involved in 86open helping to choose the standard binary format for Linux and Unix. In 1999, he was named to the MIT Technology Review TR100 as one of the top 100 innovators in the world under the age of 35.
Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linux-based software, presented Torvalds with stock options in gratitude for his creation. In 1999, both companies went public and Torvalds' share value temporarily shot up to roughly $20 million.
His personal mascot is a penguin nicknamed Tux, which has been widely adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel.
||A refund for defective software might be nice, except it would bankrupt the entire software industry in the first year.
Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 2003, Introduction, page 14
- ^ Citizen Linus, a September 13, 2010 post from LWN.net
- ^ Mike Rogoway (September 14, 2010). "Linus Torvalds, already an Oregonian, now a U.S. citizen". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
- ^ Cite error: The named reference
linuxonlinebio was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- ^ "1999 Young Innovators Under 35: Linus Torvalds, 29". Technology Review. 1999. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
- ^ Gumbel, Peter (2006-11-13). "Linus Torvalds: By giving away his software, the Finnish programmer earned a place in history". 60 Years of Heros (TIME). Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- ^ Rivlin, Gary. "Leader of the Free World". Wired. Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- ^ "Linus Torvalds: A Very Brief and Completely Unauthorized Biography". The Linux Information Project. Bellevue Linux Users Group. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- ^ Re: Linux Logo prototype., a Thu, 9 May 1996 message from Linus Torvalds (email@example.com)
- ^ Why a Penguin? from Linux Online