is a program
that enables a computer
to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware
). This includes application software
such as a word processor, which enables a user to perform a task, and system software
such as an operating system
, which enables other software to run properly, by interfacing with hardware and with other software. Software also acts as an interface between the hardware like processor(s) and user(s).
Linus Torvalds (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer and hacker, best known for having initiated the development of the open source Linux kernel. He later became the chief architect of the Linux kernel, and now acts as the project's coordinator. He also created the revision control system Git.
After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996, Torvalds accepted a position at the company in California, where he would work from February 1997 to June 2003. He then moved to the Open Source Development Labs, which has since merged with the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, under whose auspices he continues to work. In June 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Portland, Oregon, to be closer to the OSDL's Beaverton, Oregon–based headquarters.
From 1997 to 1999, he was involved in 86open helping to choose the standard binary format for Linux and Unix. In 1999, he was named to the MIT Technology Review TR100 as one of the top 100 innovators in the world under the age of 35.
Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linux-based software, presented Torvalds with stock options in gratitude for his creation. In 1999, both companies went public and Torvalds' share value temporarily shot up to roughly $20 million.
His personal mascot is a penguin nicknamed Tux, which has been widely adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel.
||Paying isn't wrong, and being paid isn't wrong. Trampling other people's freedom and community is wrong, so the free software movement aims to put an end to it, at least in the area of software.
Richard Stallman, Free Software Magazine interview, January 23, 2008
The following Wikimedia
sister projects provide more on this subject:
- ^ http://depts.alverno.edu/cil/mod1/software/system.html
- ^ http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci213024,00.html
- ^ http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/systems_software.html
- ^ W. W. Milner, Ann Montgomery-Smith (2000). Information and Communication Technology for Intermediate Gnvq. p.126
- ^ Citizen Linus, a September 13, 2010 post from LWN.net
- ^ Mike Rogoway (September 14, 2010). "Linus Torvalds, already an Oregonian, now a U.S. citizen". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
- ^ "Linux Online – Linus Torvalds Bio". Linux.org. Archived from the original on 2004-06-26. Retrieved March 13, 2010.
- ^ "1999 Young Innovators Under 35: Linus Torvalds, 29". Technology Review. 1999. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
- ^ Gumbel, Peter (2006-11-13). "Linus Torvalds: By giving away his software, the Finnish programmer earned a place in history". 60 Years of Heros (TIME). Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- ^ Rivlin, Gary. "Leader of the Free World". Wired. Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- ^ "Linus Torvalds: A Very Brief and Completely Unauthorized Biography". The Linux Information Project. Bellevue Linux Users Group. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- ^ Re: Linux Logo prototype., a Thu, 9 May 1996 message from Linus Torvalds (firstname.lastname@example.org)
- ^ Why a Penguin? from Linux Online