Portal:Spanish American wars of independence
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Spanish American wars of independence
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place during the early 19th century, from 1808 until 1829, directly related to the Napoleonic French invasion of Spain. The conflict started with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito opposing the composition of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville. When the Central Junta fell to the French, numerous new Juntas appeared all across the Americas, eventually resulting in a chain of newly independent countries stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south, to Mexico in the north. After the death of the king Fernando VII, in 1833, only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule, until the Spanish–American War in 1898.
These conflicts can be characterized both as civil wars and wars of national liberation, since the majority of the combatants were Spanish Americans on both sides, and the goal of the conflict for one side was the independence of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. In addition, the wars were related to the more general Latin American wars of independence, which include the conflicts in Haiti and Brazil.
The war in Europe, and the resulting absolutist restoration ultimately convinced the Spanish Americans of the need to establish independence from the mother country, so various revolutions broke out in Spanish America. Moreover, the process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the so-called Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France. Nevertheless, the wars in, and the independence of, Spanish America were the result of unique developments within the Spanish Monarchy.
|The Battle of Pequereque was a clash which took place on 19 June 1813, during the second Upper Peru campaign of the Argentine War of Independence, between scouting forces of the United Provinces Army of the North and the royalist Army of Perú. The Republican cavalry of the Army of the North, led by Colonel Cornelio Zelaya, prevailed over the royalists, under the command of Colonel Pedro Olañeta. The troops of Olañeta took back Pequereque three days after the battle. The Dragones retreated to the plain of Vilcapugio to avoid a further engagement with the enemy, who by that time had gathered the bulk of their forces around Ancacato. Zelaya was later sent by Belgrano to Cochabamba to recruit a bigger cavalry force from local volunteers. He would eventually join the main expeditionary force after the defeat of Vilcapugio.
||Let the orientals be as enlightened as they are brave
||— José Gervasio Artigas (1764-1850)
(Spanish: Sean los orientales tan ilustrados como valientes)
- May 25, 1809 - Chuquisaca Revolution in Chuquisaca (modern Sucre). The governor is deposed and replaced by a Junta. This revolution is known as the "First libertarian scream"
- May 25, 1810 - May Revolution in Buenos Aires. Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros is deposed and replaced by the Primera Junta
- May 5-6, 1811 - A popular rebellion in Buenos Aires deposes the Morenist members of the government
- May 14-15, 1811 - Bernardo de Velazco, governor of Paraguay, is deposed and replaced by Fulgencio Yegros
- May 18, 1811 - Battle of Las Piedras: Artigas defeats a royalist army
- May 15, 1813 - Battle of San Carlos, defeat of Jose Miguel Carrera
- may 14-17, 1814 Battle of Buceo is fought during the Argentine War of Independence
- May 24, 1822 - Battle of Pichincha: Sucre defeats a royalist army and secures the independence of the Real Audiencia de Quito, modern Ecuador
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