Sport, also known as sports, is all forms of competitive physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and provide entertainment to participants. Hundreds of sports exist, from those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
Sport is generally recognized as activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organizations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognizes both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognizes five non-physical sports, although limits the amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports.
Sports are usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first, or by the determination of judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.
In organized sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. In addition, sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sports drawing large crowds to venues, and reaching wider audiences through sports broadcasting.
, sometimes referred to as the "fastest sport on two feet," is a full contact
outdoor men's sport
played with ten players on each team. The sport originated among Native Americans
, and the modern rules of field lacrosse were initially codified by Canadian William George Beers
in 1867. Field lacrosse is one of three major versions of lacrosse
played internationally. The other versions, women's lacrosse
(established in the 1890s) and box lacrosse
(which originated in the 1930s), are played under significantly different rules.
The object of the game is to use a long handled racket, known as a lacrosse stick or crosse, to catch, carry, and pass a solid rubber ball in an effort to score by ultimately hurling the ball into an opponent's goal. The triangular head of the lacrosse stick has a loose net strung into it that allows the player to hold the lacrosse ball. In addition to the lacrosse stick, players are required to wear a certain amount of protective equipment. Defensively the object is to keep the opposing team from scoring and to dispossess them of the ball through the use of stick checking and body contact. The rules limit the number of players in each part of the field and require the ball to be moved continuously towards the opposing goal.
Lacrosse is governed internationally by the 31-member Federation of International Lacrosse, which sponsors the World Lacrosse Championships once every four years. A former Olympic sport, attempts by the international governing body to reinstate it to the Games has been hampered by insufficient international participation and by the existence of separate governing bodies for the men's and women's versions of the sport until 2008. Field lacrosse is played professionally in North America by the Major League Lacrosse. It is also played on a high amateur level by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States, the Australian Senior Lacrosse Championship series, and the Canadian University Field Lacrosse Association.
Sidney George Barnes
(5 June 1916 – 16 December 1973) was an Australian cricketer
and cricket writer, who played 13 Test matches
between 1938 and 1948. Able to open the innings
or bat down the order
, Barnes was regarded as one of Australia's finest batsmen in the period immediately following the Second World War
. He helped create an enduring record when scoring 234 in the second Test against England at Sydney in December 1946; exactly the same score as his captain, Don Bradman
, in the process setting a world-record 405 run fifth wicket partnership
. Barnes averaged 63.05 over 19 innings in a career that, like those of most of his contemporaries, was interrupted by the Second World War.
He made his first-class début at the end of the 1936–37 season when selected for New South Wales and was later included in the team for the 1938 Australian tour of England, making his Test début in the final international of the series. On the resumption of Test cricket after the war, he was picked as the opening partner to Arthur Morris. Barnes was a member of The Invincibles, the 1948 Australian team that toured England without losing a single match. Retiring from cricket at the end of that tour, Barnes attempted a comeback to Test cricket in the 1951–52 season that was ultimately and controversially unsuccessful.
Barnes was a shrewd businessman who used the opportunities afforded by cricket to supplement his income through trading, journalism and property development. Increasing paranoia brought about by bipolar disorder saw Barnes lose many of the friends he had made through the game, as he sought treatment for his depression. On 16 December 1973, he was found dead at his home in the Sydney suburb of Collaroy; he had ingested barbiturates and bromide in a probable suicide.
The New Zealand men's national rugby union team
, known as the All Blacks, represent New Zealand
in what is regarded as its national sport
. The team first competed in 1884 against Cumberland County, New South Wales
, and played their first Test match
in 1903, a victory over Australia
The All Blacks are the Rugby World Cup champions, the leading points scorers of all time, and the only international rugby team with a winning record against every test nation they have ever played. The All Blacks have held the top ranking in the world for longer than all other countries combined, and in over 100 years only five test rugby nations have ever beaten New Zealand. The All Blacks have won The Rugby Championship a record eleven times (in 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012) in the competition's 16-year history. The All Blacks have won over a record 75% of all rugby matches they have played since 1903 (which is amongst the highest in all International sport) and they were named the International Rugby Board (IRB) Team of the Year in 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010 and a record fifth time in 2011. Fifteen former All Blacks have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; three of these are also inductees of the IRB Hall of Fame, and another player is a member of the IRB Hall.
The team's early uniforms consisted of a black jersey with a silver fern and white knickerbockers. By their 1905 tour New Zealand were wearing all black, except for the silver fern, and their All Black name dates from this time. New Zealand traditionally perform a haka (Māori challenge) before each match, traditionally the Te Rauparaha's Ka Mate.
- September 4, 1931 – The World Archery Federation is founded in Lviv, Ukraine as the Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc
- September 4, 1955 – The first season of the European Cup, the predecessor to the UEFA Champions League, begins with a match between Sporting Clube de Portugal and FK Partizan
- September 4, 1995 – The inaugural Military World Games, a multi-sport event for military sportspeople, opens in Rome, Italy
- September 17, 1920 – The National Football League (game pictured), the highest level professional American football league in the United States, is founded
- September 18, 1961 – The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football is formed by the merger of the NAFC and the CCCF confederations
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