Sport, also known as sports, is all forms of competitive physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and provide entertainment to participants. Hundreds of sports exist, from those requiring only two participants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
Sport is generally recognized as activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organizations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognizes both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognizes five non-physical sports, although limits the amount of mind games which can be admitted as sports.
Sports are usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first, or by the determination of judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.
In organized sport, records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. In addition, sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sports drawing large crowds to venues, and reaching wider audiences through sports broadcasting.
The Cotswold Olimpick Games
is an annual public celebration of games and sports now held on the Friday after Spring Bank Holiday
near Chipping Campden
, in the Cotswolds
of England. The Games probably began in 1612, and have continued on and off to the present day. They were started by a local lawyer, Robert Dover
, with the approval of King James
. The Games were attended by all classes of society, including on one occasion royalty. Events included horse-racing, coursing
with hounds, running, jumping, dancing, sledgehammer throwing, fighting with swords and cudgels
, quarterstaff, and wrestling.
Many 17th-century Puritans disapproved of such festivities, believing them to be of pagan origin, and they particularly disapproved of any celebration on a Sunday or a church holiday such as Whitsun. By the time of King James's death in 1625, many Puritan landowners had forbidden their workers to attend such festivities; the increasing tensions between the supporters of the king and the Puritans resulted in the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, bringing the Games to an end.
Revived after the Restoration of 1660, the Games gradually degenerated into a drunk and disorderly country festival according to their critics. The Games ended again in 1852, when the common land on which they had been staged was partitioned between local landowners and farmers and subsequently enclosed. Since 1966 the Games have been held each year on the Friday after Spring Bank Holiday. Events have included the tug of war, gymkhana, shin-kicking, dwile flonking, motor cycle scrambling, judo, piano smashing, and morris dancing. The British Olympic Association has recognised the Cotswold Olimpick Games as "the first stirrings of Britain's Olympic beginnings".
Sir Donald George Bradman
(27 August 1908 – 25 February 2001), often referred to as "The Don", was an Australian cricketer
, widely acknowledged as the greatest Test batsman
of all time. Bradman's career Test batting average
of 99.94 is often cited as statistically the greatest achievement by any sportsman in any major sport. The story that the young Bradman practised alone with a cricket stump and a golf ball is part of Australian folklore
. Bradman's meteoric rise from bush
cricket to the Australian
Test team took just over two years. Before his 22nd birthday, he had set many records for high scoring, some of which still stand, and became Australia's sporting idol at the height of the Great Depression
During a 20-year playing career, Bradman consistently scored at a level that made him, in the words of former Australia captain Bill Woodfull, "worth three batsmen to Australia". A controversial set of tactics, known as Bodyline, was specifically devised by the England team to curb his scoring. As a captain and administrator, Bradman was committed to attacking, entertaining cricket; he drew spectators in record numbers. He hated the constant adulation, however, and it affected how he dealt with others. The focus of attention on his individual performances strained relationships with some team-mates, administrators and journalists, who thought him aloof and wary. Following an enforced hiatus due to the Second World War, he made a dramatic comeback, captaining an Australian team known as "The Invincibles" on a record-breaking unbeaten tour of England.
Bradman retained a pre-eminent position in the game by acting as an administrator, selector and writer for three decades following his retirement. Even after he became reclusive in his declining years his opinion was highly sought. Bradman's image has appeared on postage stamps and coins, and a museum dedicated to his life was opened while he was still living. On 19 November 2009, he was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame.
John Morrison and The Miz
were a professional wrestling tag team
and former WWE Tough Enough
contestants. The team was compried of John Hennigan
, going by the ring name
John Morrison, and Michael Mizanin
, going by the ring name The Miz. The team worked for World Wrestling Entertainment
on its ECW brand
, but also appeared on the SmackDown
brands due to ECW's talent exchanges with those brands during their tenure as a team. The team had no official name, although they had been referred to as "The In Crowd" or "The Dirt Sheet Duo", after the name of their online webshow.
They first began teaming together in 2007. John Morrison and The Miz, originally rivals, became partners as a result being paired together and winning the WWE Tag Team Championship, making the title exclusive to the ECW brand for a brief time. They eventually dropped the title in July 2008. During their title reign, Morrison and The Miz developed a gimmick that resulted in the duo being given their own webshow, The Dirt Sheet, and their own in-ring interview segment of the same name on ECW. In December 2008 they won the Slammy Award in the category for Tag Team of the Year and won the World Tag Team Championship. The team split in April 2009, after the Miz was drafted to the Raw brand and Morrison was drafted to the SmackDown brand as part of the 2009 WWE Draft.
In October 2009, WWE premiered a new pay-per-view event based around inter-brand matches. At the time, The Miz was the second-tier champion on Raw after winning the United States Champion and was subsequently booked against SmackDown's Intercontinental Champion, John Morrison. In the build up to their first match since splitting, the two hosted a one-off edition of The Dirt Sheet on the October 16 episode of SmackDown. The Miz won the bout. The following month at Survivor Series, Miz captained a team of five wrestlers against Team Morrison in a five-on-five Survivor Series elimination match and once again bested his former partner. Soon after, Miz continued his ascendency and won the WWE Championship.
- April 6, 1896 – The first international Olympic Games held in the modern era, the 1896 Summer Olympics (pictured), begin
- April 8, 2005 – The inaugural Islamic Solidarity Games open in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
- April 14, 1900 – Union Cycliste Internationale, the world governing body for sports cycling, is founded in Paris, France
- April 19, 1897 – The first Boston Marathon is run
- April 26, 2002 – The inaugural season of the China Baseball League begins
Select ► to view subcategories