# Portal:Statistics/Did you know

## Did you know...

## Instructions

1. Add new items at the first redlink in the section below
2. Update the main page so that the {{Did you know|total=12|show=9}} has the "total" parameter equal to the number of non-empty subpages. The "show" parameter must not be more than 20.

If you have any difficulty, problems or questions relating to the technical side of this sub-page, ask at the Portal's talk page.

### Current DYKs

1. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/1: ...that though he had a brilliant mathematical career, the statistician Pat Moran had difficulty with simple arithmetic and wrote himself, 'Arithmetic I could not do'?
2. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/2: ...that as a graduate student at UC Berkeley in 1939, George Dantzig solved two then-unanswered questions related to the Neyman-Pearson lemma, because he mistakenly thought they were a homework assignment?
3. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/3: ...that one result of the birthday problem is that among a group of 23 (or more) randomly chosen people, there is more than 50% probability that some pair of them will both have been born on the same day of the year?
4. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/4: ...that the term bias is not necessarily pejorative in statistics, since biased estimators may have desirable properties (such as a smaller mean squared error than any unbiased estimator), and that in extreme cases the only unbiased estimators are not even within the convex hull of the parameter space?
5. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/5: ...that William Sealy Gosset published under the pseudonym Student in order to avoid detection by his employer, and so his most famous achievement is now referred to as Student's t-distribution, which might otherwise have been Gosset's t-distribution?
6. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/6: ...that in 1747, by dividing 12 men suffering from scurvy into six pairs and giving each group different additions to their basic diet for a period of two weeks, the surgeon James Lind conducted one of the first controlled experiments?
7. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/7: ...that the Cauchy distribution is an example of a distribution which has no mean, variance or higher moments defined?
8. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/8: ...that according to Benford's law, the first digit from many real-life sources of data is 1 almost one third of the time?
9. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/9: ...that the Law of Truly Large Numbers of Diaconis and Mosteller states that with a sample size large enough, any outrageous thing is likely to happen?
10. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/10: ...that for the number of shuffles needed to randomize a deck, Persi Diaconis concluded that for good shuffling technique, the deck did not start to become random until five good riffle shuffles, and was truly random after seven, in the precise sense of variation distance described in Markov chain mixing time?
11. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/11: ...that for many standard probability distributions, there are infinitely many outcomes in the sample space, so that attempting to define probabilities for all possible subsets of such spaces would cause difficulties for 'badly-behaved' sets such as those which are nonmeasurable?
12. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/12: ... that Jan Piekałkiewicz, a leading Polish statistician, became the Polish Underground State's Government Delegate, and died at the hands of Nazi Germany?
13. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/13: ... that Alec Gallup, co-chairman of The Gallup Organization and the son of founder George Gallup, was described as someone who could "smell out a bad question or an unreasonable interpretation of data"?
14. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/14: ... that the convergence of the iterative proportional fitting method for estimating the cell values of a contingency table was re-proved using differential geometry?
15. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/15: ... that statistical properties dictated by Benford's Law are used in auditing of financial accounts as one means of detecting fraud?
16. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/16: ... that Henry Mann's 1949 book, Analysis and design of experiments, filled mathematical gaps in the statistical writings of Ronald A. Fisher?
17. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/17: ... that Gustav Elfving invented the optimal design of experiments, and so minimized the cost of a cartographic survey, while trapped in his tent in storm-ridden Greenland?
18. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/18: ... that in 2009, Revolution Analytics named Norman H. Nie, one of the original SPSS developers, as their new CEO?
19. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/19: ... that proper design of a sampling frame can be crucial in statistical research?
20. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/20: ... that least-squares spectral analysis is a method for estimating a frequency spectrum, based on a least squares fit between data and trigonometric functions?
21. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/21: ... that the Holtsmark distribution was proposed in 1919 as a model for the gravitational field of stars?
22. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/22: ... that variables and attributes are some of the most basic concepts in science?
23. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/23: ... that although randomness had long been viewed as an obstacle, it is now used as a tool for designing better algorithms?
24. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/24: ... that the Jadad scale is the world's most widely used means of assessing the methodological quality of clinical trials?
25. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/25: ... that Ulpian's life table predicted a life expectancy of 19 to 23 years for citizens of the Roman Empire?
26. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/26: ... that there are many ways to create misleading graphs?
27. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/27: ... that while the center of gravity for a set of points is located at the spot from which the sum of the squares of distances to all the points is minimized, the geometric median is the spot from which the sum of distances is minimized?
28. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/28: ... that square root biased sampling was originally developed as a way to sample long sequences of DNA?
29. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/29: ... that the Laplace distribution with a mean of zero is a special case of the geometric stable distribution?
30. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/30: ... that the log-Cauchy distribution has been proposed as a model for the progression of HIV in individuals?
31. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/31: ... that bivariate analysis is one of simplest forms of quantitative (statistical) analysis?
32. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/32: ... that, while President of the American Statistical Association, Robert V. Hogg wore the name tag "Boss Hogg" after the character on the television series The Dukes of Hazzard?
33. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/33: ... that the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, today a prominent academic journal in statistics, had as its first work a simple door-to-door survey of occupations in Manchester?
34. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/34: ... that the reason why occupancy frequency distributions tend to be bimodal is not known?
35. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/35: ... that Russian-born Israeli mathematician Aryeh Dvoretzky is the first graduate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem to become a full professor there?
36. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/36: ... that the hierarchical generalized linear model is a useful statistical model in fields ranging from semiconductor fabrication to marketing research?
37. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/37: ... that univariate analysis is the simplest form of quantitative (statistical) analysis?
38. Portal:Statistics/Did_you_know/38: ... that mathematician Lennart Carleson received his Ph.D. when he was 22 years old and later supervised the thesis of Svante Janson, who received his first Ph.D. on his 22nd birthday?
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