Portal:Submarine

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The Submarine Portal

Japanese Submarine Oyashio SS590.JPEG

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has only limited underwater capability. The term submarine most commonly refers to large crewed autonomous vessels; however, historically or more casually, submarine can also refer to medium sized or smaller vessels (midget submarines, wet subs), remotely operated vehicles or robots. The word submarine was originally an adjective meaning "under the sea", and so consequently other uses such as "submarine engineering" or "submarine cable" may not actually refer to submarines at all. Submarine was shortened from the term "submarine boat", and is often further shortened to "sub".

Submarines are referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. The English term U-boat for a German submarine comes from the German word for submarine, U-Boot, itself an abbreviation for Unterseeboot ("undersea boat").

Submarine history goes back far before the 19th century, in the form of some experimental boats, submarine design began to gear up during the 19th century. Submarines were first widely used in World War I, and feature in many large navies. Uses in submarine warfare range from attacking enemy ships or submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruise missile), and covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage, exploration and facility inspection/maintenance. Submarines can also be specialized to a function such as search and rescue, or undersea cable repair. Submarines are also used in tourism and for academic research.

Submarines have one of the largest ranges of capabilities in any vessel, ranging from small autonomous examples to one or two-person vessels operating for a few hours, to vessels which can remain submerged for 6 months such as the Russian Typhoon class. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers. Modern deep diving submarines are derived from the bathyscaphe, which in turn was an evolution of the diving bell.

Most large submarines comprise a cylindrical body with hemispherical (and/or conical) ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines this structure is the "sail" in American usage, and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller (or pump jet) at the rear and various hydrodynamic control fins as well as ballast tanks. Smaller, deep diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout.

Selected article

SM UB-7 was a German Type UB I submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during World War I. She disappeared in the Black Sea in September 1916.

UB-7 was ordered in October 1914 and was laid down at the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen in November. UB-7 was a little under 92 feet (28 m) in length and displaced between 127 and 141 metric tons (140 and 155 short tons), depending on whether surfaced or submerged. She carried two torpedoes for her two bow torpedo tubes and was also armed with a deck-mounted machine gun. UB-7 was originally one of a pair of UB I boats sent to the Austro-Hungarian Navy to replace an Austrian pair to be sent to the Dardanelles, and was broken into sections and shipped by rail to Pola in March 1915 for reassembly. She was launched in April and commissioned as SM UB-7 in the German Imperial Navy in May when the Austrians opted out of the agreement.[Note 1]

Although briefly a part of the Pola Flotilla at commissioning, UB-7 spent the majority of her career patrolling the Black Sea as part of the Constantinople Flotilla. The U-boat sank one ship of 6,011 GRT in September 1915. In October, she helped repel a Russian bombardment of Bulgaria. She was considered for transfer to the Bulgarian Navy, but disappeared in late September 1916 before a transfer could take place. Her fate is officially unknown, but sources report that may have struck a mine or been sunk by a Russian airplane.

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Selected biography

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1976-127-06A, Karl Dönitz.jpg
Karl Dönitz
b. (1891-09-16)September 16, 1891 – d. December 24, 1980(1980-12-24) (aged 89)

Karl Dönitz (16 September 1891 – 24 December 1980) was a German naval commander during World War II. He started his career in the German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine, or "Imperial Navy") before World War I. In 1918, while he was in command of UB-68, the submarine was sunk by British forces and Dönitz was taken prisoner. While in a prisoner of war camp, he formulated what he later called Rudeltaktik ("pack tactic", commonly called "wolfpack"). At the start of World War II, he was the senior submarine officer in the German Navy. In January 1943, Dönitz achieved the rank of Großadmiral (Grand Admiral) and replaced Grand Admiral Erich Raeder as Commander-in-Chief of the German Navy (Oberbefehlshaber der Kriegsmarine).

On 30 April 1945, after the apparent death of Adolf Hitler and in accordance with Hitler's last will and testament, Dönitz was named Hitler's successor as Staatsoberhaupt (Head of State), with the title of Reichspräsident (President) and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. On 7 May 1945, he ordered Alfred Jodl to sign the German instruments of surrender in Rheims, France. Dönitz remained as head of the Flensburg Government, as it became known, until it was dissolved by the Allied powers on 23 May.

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Selected picture

An artist's impression of a Permit class submarine firing a Regulus II cruise missile.
Credit: Marcd30319 (talk · contribs) on the English Wikipedia

The Thresher/Permit class of United States Navy nuclear attack submarines were the replacement for the Skipjack class. They were used primarily in the 1960s and 1970s, until replaced by the Sturgeon and Los Angeles classes.

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