Zambia has been inhabited for thousands of years by hunter-gatherers and migrating tribes. After sporadic visits by European explorers starting in the 18th century, Zambia was gradually claimed and occupied by the British as protectorate of Northern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century. On 24 October 1964, the protectorate gained independence with a new name derived from the Zambezi river which flows through Zambia. After independence the country moved towards a system of one party rule with Kenneth Kaunda as president. Kaunda dominated Zambian politics until multiparty elections were held in 1991.
Kenneth David Kaunda, (born April 28, 1924) was the first President of Zambia, serving from October 24, 1964 to November 2, 1991. Kaunda was the youngest child of the Reverend David Kaunda, an ordained Church of Scotland missionary and teacher. He originally trained as a teacher but gave up teaching 1951 to become the Organising Secretary of the Northern Rhodesian African National Congress for Northern Province, and in 1953 he became the Secretary General of the party. However, after differences with the party president, Harry Nkumbula, Kaunda left to form the Zambian African National Congress (ZANC) in 1958 but was imprisoned in 1959 after the new party was banned. While Kaunda was in prison, several nationalists broke away from the ANC and formed United National Independence Party as a successor to ZANC. When Kaunda was released from prison in January 1960 he was elected President of UNIP. In July 1961 Kaunda organized a civil disobedience campaign in Northern Province, which consisted of burning schools and blocking roads. Kaunda ran as a UNIP candidate during the 1962 elections, which resulted in a UNIP–ANC Coalition Government, with Kaunda as Minister of Local Government and Social Welfare. UNIP won the 1964 general election under the new Constitution and Kaunda was appointed Prime Minister. On 24 October 1964 he became the first President of independent Zambia. (continued...)
Kalambo Falls on the Kalambo River is a 772ft (235m) single drop waterfall on the border of Zambia and Tanzania at the southeast end of Lake Tanganyika. The falls are the second-highest uninterrupted falls in Africa (after South Africa's Tugela Falls). Downstream of the falls the Kalambo Gorge which has a width of about 1 km and a depth of up to 300 m runs for about 5 km before opening out into the Lake Tanganyika rift valley.