Portrait of an Unknown Woman
|Type||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||75.5 cm × 99 cm (29.7 in × 39 in)|
|Location||Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia|
Portrait of an Unknown Woman (also known as The Unknown Woman, An Unknown Lady or Stranger) (Russian: Неизвестная or Neizvestnaia  or Neznakomka) is a painting by the Russian artist Ivan Kramskoi, executed in 1883. The identity of the model is unknown and depicts a woman of "quiet strength and forthright gaze". It is one of Russia's best-known art works, although a number of critics were indignant when the painting was first exhibited and condemned what they saw as a depiction of a haughty and immoral woman. Its popularity has grown with changes in public taste.
Frederick R. Andresen states that the painting supposedly inspired Leo Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina character, but further notes the book was published about ten years prior to the painting. The painting has been used as the cover for some editions of the book. The painting hangs in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, while an earlier version, also dated 1883, is housed at the Arts Center in Kiel.
Description and reception
Portrait of an Unknown Woman combines elements of the genre and portrait traditions in art. Set against a wintery background, it shows a proud, haughty looking young woman who is handsome, though not especially beautiful. Her personality shines through in the rendering of her sensuous lips, lazy eyes and thick eyebrows. She is dressed in a fashionable black fur and velvet coat, fur hat, with thin leather gloves. The woman is seated on an open carriage at the Anichkov Bridge in Saint Petersburg.
Her identity has not been established by art historians. Kramskoi titled the painting Unknown, and did not mention her in any of his letters or diaries, leading to much speculation and the painting's highly enigmatic reputation.
The portrait was painted late in Kramskoi's life. He had begun his career as a rebel working outside of the establishment, and was early on expelled from the Russian Academy. By 1883, he was at the height of his fame and reputation and working at the highest level of patronage, producing portraits of Czar Alexander III and his wife Maria Feodorovna. He was also one of the founders and leaders of The Wanderers.
However, Portrait of an Unknown Woman caused a sensation when first exhibited, more as a result of the subject matter than the aesthetics of the work. A number of critics presumed that the woman was a prostitute. One critic described the painting as a portrayal of "a coquette in a carriage", while another wrote of "a provocatively beautiful woman, all in velvet and fur, throwing you a sneeringly sensuous glance from a luxurious carriage - is this not one of the effluvia of big cities that allow contemptible women dressed in outfits purchased for the price of their female chastity onto the streets". Kramskoi remarked, "Some people have said it is not known who this woman is. Is she decent, or does she sell herself? But within her is an entire epoch."
Pavel Tretyakov at first refused to buy the painting for his gallery. However, its popularity quickly grew, in part as the beauty of sin became a popular theme amongst the following generation of Russian artists. It has been described as "unusually bright, densely painted, and relaxed. Kramskoi clearly tried to shine with his outstanding painterly mastery." In 2008, Guggenheim curator Valerie Hillings observed that, "Many people just think she's sort of like Anna Karenina. She has that kind of special feel, that special Russianness".
- Wachtel, 58
- "Ivan Kramskoi". russianartgallery.org. Retrieved on 17 March 2010.
- Hutchings, Stephen C. & Vernitski, Anat. "Russian and Soviet film adaptations of literature, 1900-2001: screening the word". Routledge, 2004. 29. ISBN 0-415-30667-1
- Baumgaertner, Margaret Carter (Peggy). "Ivan Kramskoy". American Society of Portrait Artists. Retrieved on 17 March 2010.
- "An Unknown Lady". Tretyakov Gallery. Retrieved on 17 March 2010
- Page 95 - Andresen, Frederick R.. Walking on Ice: An American Businessman in Russia (2007 ed.). Frederick Andresen. ISBN 1-4327-1352-3.
- Back Cover - Tolstoy, Leo; Translated by Rosemary Edmonds. Anna Karenin (1978 ed.). Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044041-0.
- "Kramskoy, Ivan Nikolayevich". Tretyakov Gallery. Retrieved 27 MArch, 2010.
- The Anichkov Palace can be seen in the background
- Wachtel, 59
- Benjamin, Scott. "Rethinking Russian Art". CSB News, 8 January 2006. Retrieved on 17 March 2010.
- Wachtel, Andrew. Plays of expectations. University of Washington Press, 2007. 58. ISBN 0-295-98647-6