|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2010)|
Portugal–Spain relations describes relations between the governments of the Portuguese Republic and the Kingdom of Spain. The two states make up the vast majority of the Iberian Peninsula and as such, the relationship between the two is sometimes known as Iberian relations.
Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1139, when Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself king of Portugal on 25 July 1139, after defeating the Moors at the Battle of Ourique. He was recognized as such in 1143 by King Alfonso VII of León and Castile and in 1179 by Pope Alexander III.
Spain, in its modern form, is widely believed to have begun by the Union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon in 1479, although the unification of Spain and creation of one nation state only took place during the Age of Enlightenment. Until then Spain was a geographic location referring to the Iberian peninsula, and the kingdoms united under the same king were collectively known as the Spains although this was not the official name. It was only in the constitution of 1812 that was adopted the name "Españas" (Spains) for the Spanish nation and the use the title of "king of the Spains". The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from then on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain".
Portugal, Castille and Aragon were allies in the Reconquista in which they reconquered land from the Muslim Moors in the south of the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal's reconquest was fully achieved by 1249, while Spain finished its reconquest in 1492.
During the 15th century, both kingdoms, Portugal and Castile, built increasingly large fleets of ships and began to explore the world beyond Europe, sending explorers to Africa and Asia. Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean in 1492, both states began acquiring territory in the New World. As a result of the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal acquired its most potentially important colony, Brazil (much of the South American continent), as well as a number of possessions in Africa and Asia, while Castile took the rest of South America and much of the North American continent. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands claimed for Spain by Columbus on his first voyage. Although the Treaty of Tordesillas attempted to clarify their empires, many subsequent treaties were needed to establish the modern boundaries of Brazil, and the 1529 Treaty of Zaragoza was needed to demarcate their Asian possessions.
In 1578, king Sebastian of Portugal died in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir against the Moroccans and the Turks. Having no heirs, he was succeeded by his great-uncle Henry of Portugal, who reigned until his death (31 January 1580).
Henry also lacked heirs, and his death triggered a succession crisis, where the main claimants to the throne were Philip II of Spain and Anthony, Prior of Crato. Philip was crowned king in 1581, beginning a personal union between the two nations known as the Iberian Union. After a three-year-long war with Anthony and his foreign allies, resistance crumbled and the union was consolidated.
During the wars of the 18th century, which were often fought by the major powers to maintain the European balance of power, Spain and Portugal usually found themselves on opposite sides. The Portuguese, courtesy of their long-standing alliance, aligned themselves with Great Britain, while Spain, through the Bourbon Family Compact, allied themselves to France. In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, Spain launched an unsuccessful invasion of Portugal.
In 1777, there was a conflict between the two states over the borders of their possessions in South America.
In 1807, the king of Spain and his French allies invaded Portugal, using a route that crossed through Spanish territory. However, the French decided to take over both countries, overthrowing the King of Spain and forcing the Portuguese royal family to escape to the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Spain and Portugal subsequently became allies for the first time in centuries and, allied to a British army under Sir Arthur Wellesley, drove the French back across the border in 1813 after a prolonged, brutal conflict known as the Peninsular War.
After the fall of Napoleon, both countries came close to war a number of times during the early 19th century. Both lost their American colonies shortly after the end of the Peninsular War, which severely weakened their global power.
The 1930s saw similar right-leaning, authoritarian and nationalist regimes emerge in both countries. In Portugal, António de Oliveira Salazar established his Estado Novo in 1933. In 1936, Francisco Franco launched a rebellion against the Spanish government, and after three years of civil war, his nationalists were triumphant.
Both states remained neutral in World War II, though Spain was more predisposed to Nazi Germany, Portugal also maintained a friendly relationship with Nazi Germany, supplying it with many key resources such as tungsten. Yet in virtue of the 14th century alliance Portugal had with England, it was also supplying Britain with all sorts of produce, and whilst the Germans had to pay immediately, Britain had an open account for most of the war.
World War II came to a close in 1944, with the Allies victorious, the two states of Portugal and Spain became increasingly isolated with their governments rooted in the old war, as authoritarian dictatorships, rather than the democracy that was being established or re-established throughout the rest of Western Europe.
While the other European colonial powers, such as France, Britain, and the Netherlands, gave up their colonial empires in the post-war years, both Spain and Portugal clung to their possessions around the globe. Portugal fought a costly colonial war in Africa, and in 1961 saw its territory of Goa invaded by India. Despite their apparent mutual self-interest, there was very little co-operation between Spain and Portugal when it came to defending their empires.
End of isolation
In 1974, the dictatorship of the Estado Novo was brought to an end by a left-wing military coup known as the Carnation Revolution. This left Spain increasingly isolated from the rest of Europe, which lasted until the death of Franco a year later, after which Spain returned to being a constitutional monarchy and embraced parliamentarism. The PREC that had followed the Carnation Revolution in Portugal came to an end in 1976, and Portugal also became a democracy.
The two states gave independence to their former colonies, liberalized their economies, and began the process of applying for membership of the European Economic Community. In 1986, the two states formally entered the Community, which is now known as the European Union, pursuant to the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon.
Current relations between Spain and Portugal are outstandingly good. They cooperate in the fight against drug trafficking and forest fires (common in the Iberian Peninsula in summers), for example. These close relations are facilitated by similar governments; such as the conservative governments of José María Aznar & José Manuel Durão Barroso and the social democratic governments of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero & José Sócrates. Sócrates even claims that he has one of the best personal relations with Zapatero among international political relation.
In 1998, both countries signed the Albufeira Convention, an agreement on the sharing of trans-boundary rivers such as the Douro, Tagus, and Guadiana. The convention superseded an original agreement on the Douro, signed in 1927, that was expanded in 1964 and 1968 to include tributaries. The Albufeira Convention governs the equitable use of water and environmental concerns.
The two countries submitted an unsuccessful joint bid to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup that was very unuseful due to taxes.
There is an unsettled territorial dispute regarding the municipality of Olivenza/Olivença and the smaller town and municipality of Táliga, both currently administered as a part of the province of Badajoz, in the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura. Olivenza/Olivença had been under continuous Portuguese sovereignty since prior to 1297 when it was occupied by the Spanish in 1801 and formally ceded by Portugal later that year by the Treaty of Badajoz. Spain claims de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz still stands and has never been revoked, despite that Spain also signed the Treaty of Vienna in 1817, restoring Olivenza/Olivença to Portugal. Portugal claims de jure sovereignty over Olivenza/Olivença on the grounds that the Treaty of Badajoz was revoked by its own terms (Which stated: The breach of any of its articles would lead to its cancellation) when Spain invaded Portugal in the Peninsular War of 1807, and foremost, due to the fact that Spain signed the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, which recognizes Olivenza/Olivença as Portuguese territory.
Recently, Spain has also initiated a diffuse dispute regarding Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zone in the territorial waters of the Savage Islands (a small archipelago north of the Canary Islands), under Portuguese sovereignty. Spain objects on the basis that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf, according to the article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The status of the Savage Islands as islands or rocks is thus at the core of the current dispute, mainly due to Spanish aspirations for fishing and mineral exploration. Today the Savage Islands constitute a natural reserve whose inhabitants are a small Portuguese Marine Corps combat detachment, and two wardens of Madeira's Natural Park. Over the years the Portuguese authorities have seized some Spanish fishing boats and crew around the area for illegal fishing and theft of light beacons and navigation buoys.
Resident diplomatic missions
- Portugal has an embassy in Madrid and consulates-general in Barcelona and Seville and a consulate in Vigo.
- Spain has an embassy in Lisbon and a consulate general in Porto and consulates in Valença and Vila Real de Santo António.
- 1383–85 Crisis
- Portuguese Empire
- Spanish Empire
- Foreign relations of Spain
- Foreign relations of Portugal
- Greater Portugal
- Spanish irredentism
- Vicente, António Pedro (2003). Espanha e Portugal: Um olhar sobre as relações peninsulares no século XX. Tribuna da História. ISBN 9789728799014.
- "Spanish-Portuguese Albufeira Convention". United Nations. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part VIII, Article 121
- "Historial" (in Portuguese)
- Carvalho, Luis and Leitão, Nuno, A Noção "Estratégica" das Ilhas Selvagens (in Portuguese)
- Embassy of Portugal in Madrid (in Portuguese and Spanish)
- Embassy of Spain in Lisbon (in Portuguese and Spanish)